Changes and Adjustments

Phase 1


Adj/adv words modifying other adj/adv words: adj/adv → adj/adv + -li


Using adj/adv words to modifying other adj/adv words creates ambiguity:

dayo bala uma - big strong horse or greatly (very) strong horse


  • perfeto syahe tofa - perfect black hair
  • perfetoli syahe tofa - perfectly black hair

very: dayodaylimuldayoli or dayli


This change conforms with the adverbial use of -li described above.

as... as...: egal... kupul... → denli... kuli...


This change conforms with the adverbial use of -li described above.

there is/are: is → hay


The use of is for "there is/are" seems confusing and gives is too many meanings. The introduction of the root word hay adds clarity.

passive voice: be- → (optionally) be or be-


Separating the particle be- makes it easier to identify it. The prefix be- is still optional with verbs, but obligatory with noun and adjective compounds: belubiyen (loved one).

However, be- as a prefix might ultimately be easier to process, so this experimental change may be switched back to the original be- in all cases.

fe: optional fe in many instances → optional fe limited to correlatives, sentence initial expressions with -ya nouns, and certain common time phrases (ledyen, etc.)


Having too many different instances where fe is optional may become confusing and difficult to determine when fe must be applied and when it's optional.

infinitive: optional na → obligatory na


Optional na creates an unacceptable ambiguity.

Optional: Mi suki oko - I like the eye. vs I like to see.

Obligatory: Mi suki oko - I like the eye. Mi suki na oko - I like to see.

any/ever: hehe-


The separate word he creates some three-word correlatives which seem too disjointed:

he ban loka - anywhere vs. the updated heban loka - anywhere

other: alteralo


Better consistency in the form of correlatives (see next point).

Addition of sama- as correlative


Sama as the opposite of alo, for symmetry in the correlatives.

-ible, -able: be-X-bilbe-X-bil or short form -bel


The affix structure be-X-bil is a bit long and cumbersome for being so common.


invisible: nobeokobil (invisible) → nookobel

Root Words


Globasa updated its phonology in September, 2019 in order to introduce more recognizability to international words without making the phonology much more complicated.

The consonant -h is no longer allowed in word final position. The consonants allowed in word-final position are now the following nine: -f, -l, -m, -n, -r, -s, -w-, -x, -y.

Within a word, any and all single consonants are now allowed in syllable final position. The following root words have been adjusted as a result:

morning: sobah → soba
fox: rubah → rubarubahe
advice: nasih → nasiha
rest: istirah → istraharahatu
black: syah → syahe
cough: koh(hoh) → kof(kof)
magnet: mahneto → magneto
technology: tehno → tekno
sex: sexo → sekso
word: lexi → leksikoleksi
galaxy: galaxi → galaksi
select, choose: seleci → seleksiseleti
instructions: istruci → istruksiistruksyon
action: aci → aksyon
function, work: funci → funsyon

Double Vowels Discarded: Double vowels were also discarded in the phonology.

achoo: acuu → acum
wolf: auu → haul

Avoiding artificial compromises: The following words were adjusted in order to avoid a compromise between languages that is too artificial.

tree: dreho → drevo

Arabic final vowel -u

dear: azize → azizu
lesson: darse → darsu
house: bayte → baytu
obedience: etate → etatu
romantic love: exke → exku
drown: garka → garaku
hour: sate → satu
fall: sokute → sokutu
thing: xeye → xeyu

Avoiding conflict: The following words were adjusted to avoid a conflict with another root word or phrase

gram: gram → gramo
enough, sufficient: kafi → kufi
room: kamer → kamar→ kamera
rabbit/hare: hargox → kargux
long: longo → lungo
machine: maxin → maxina
replacement, substitution: daytay → tayday

Increasing recognizability

theater: teatra → teatro
young: june → juni
virus: viru → virus
crisis: krisi → krisis
basket: baske → basketo
ticket: tike → tiketo
enjoyment, pleasure: furha → furaha
date: tarhe → tarihe
fantasy: fantas → fantasi
window: janel → janela

Clipped Roots

reputation: reputasyon → reputa

Greater ease in pronounciation

culture: kultur → kultura (kulturali)
nature: natur → natura (naturali)

long/short → short

car: (awto)mobil → mobil
bus: (awto)bus → bus


hard, rigid, stiff: xahte → sakate

Different Root Word

color: rangi → kolor (-lor)
gray: gris → hwese
coast: sahil → kosta
search, look for: xunjaw → xerca
accept: aceta → swikara
interpret: interpreta → tafasir

Greater Mandarin representation in the UDHR

The following words were not in the original dictionary but were added in the process of translating the UDHR. The root words were changed according to the new Methodology for Word Selection for greater international balance by giving Mandarin a greater representation.

commerce: komerci → xangyo
widow: vidwe → gwafu
vote: voto → tupyo
compensation/compensate: kompensa → bocan

Dropped root word in favor of affixed word

street, road: kuca → dolo
highway, freeway: dolo → daydolo

Dropped affixed word in favor of root word

school: xwexidom, alimdom → eskol

Narrowing down meaning with addition of root word

know: jixi → jixi, kone

Addition of vowels or elimination of codas

abyas → abyasa (rehearse, practice)
amir → amiru (command)
amus → amusa (amuse)
anxos → ansyoso (anxious)
bahar → bahari (sea)
banan → banana (banana)
bander → bandera (flag)
botel → botela (bottle)
brun → bruno (brown)
byer → bira (beer)
darje → daraje (degree)
deklar → deklara (declare, declaration)
din → dini (religion)
disen → diseno (design)
dyen → dina (day)
ekonom → ekonomi (economy)
enfas → enfasis (emphasis)
eskas → eskaso (scarce, scarcely, barely)
esker → esketi (skirt)
especif → especifi (especific)
estar → estare (star)
estil → estilo (style)
estrober → estroberi (strawberry)
exklus → exklusi (exclude)
figur → figura (form, figure)
flex → fleksi (bend)
garbi → garabi (west)
haruf → harufi (letter of alphabet)
hatar → hatari (danger)
hazun → hazuni (sad)
hikay → hikaye (story)
hukim → hukimu (judge, judgment)
inklus → inklusi (include)
ix → ixu (adult)
jabre → jabare (jaw)
jayza → jayeza (prize, reward)
jyani → jeni (suggest)
kalam → kalamu (pen)
kamar → kamera (room)
kamis → kamisa (shirt)
katin → katina (difficult)
kijaw → kijawi (green)
klas → klase (class, category)
komentar → komenta (comment)
kompar → kompara (compare)
korban → korbani (victim)
mader → maderi (matter)
mahar → mahara (skill)
makal → makale (article in publication)
malki → milaki (property)
masal → masele (issue, matter, affair)
maxor → maxori (most)
medis → medici (medicate, medicine)
mekan → mekani (mechanism)
minor → minori (the minority of)
mixtur → mixtura (mix)
mosim → mosimu (season)
mwes → mesi (month)
nervos → nervoso (nervous)
nigal → nigalu (swallow)
ofis → ofisi (office)
ordinar → ordinari (ordinary)
palas → palasi (palace)
plas → plasi (put, place)
poem → poema (poem)
polis → polisi (police)
precis → preciso (precise, exact)
prefer → preferi (prefer)
produs → produti (product)
proces → proceso (process)
purpur → purpuro (purple)
razon → rasona (reason)
regul → regula (rule)
reklam → reklama (advertisement)
sebul → cebula (onion)
sigar → sigaro (cigar)
simul → simula (simulate)
sukar → sukeri (sugar)
swikar → swikara (accept)
talju → taluji (snow)
umum → umumi (general)
utar → utara (north)
vyayam → vyayama (exercise)
xekay → xekaye (complain)


doy → dua
tin → tiga
car → care
lim → lima
sis → sisa
sef → sabe
walo → oco
naw → nue

(Ordinal numbers with the suffix -yum.)

Greater Japanese Influence in East-Asian Words (simpler phonology/pronunciation).

celyan → calyo (vehicle)
consan → cosan (praise)
jifan → cibo (fat)
jontay → jotay (state, condition)
yanxin → yoxin (conscience)
xanho → soho (reciprocal, each other)
xangyo → xogyo (commerce)

Phase 2 (December, 2019)


  • The preposition tas (to, for) as the indirect object marker; the preposition cel now used only to show movement
  • Adjective/adverb dacu (approximately, around, about); semantics of preposition wey narrowed down
  • Preposition cis (on this side of) as the opposite of tras
  • Prefix nen- (un-)
  • Preposition nenhar (without) replaced by wal
  • Verb Mood dupul

ji... ji... → iji.... ji
or... or... → oro... or
nor... nor... → noro... nor
kam... kam... → kama... kam

The preposition fe optional only in expressions of time

Semantic Adjustments:

  • Preposition por: "in exchange for" instead as "per"
  • Semantic adjustment for laye
  • -je and -ya
  • pel

Sentence initial expressions:

  • Elimination of fe... -ya expressions in favor of simple adjective/adverbs (with obligatory pause after comma)
  • Elimination of to in certain expressions: unyum to → unyum; xaja to → xaja (with obligatory pause after comma)

Infinitive phrases used after prepositions

Adverbs of degree and manner: -li → -mo

go → go-

Free word order for hay sentences

The use of su as a genitive (possessive) particle for all nouns

The copula is only for linking subject with noun phrase, infinitive phrase or clause

Prepositional Verbs: Prepositions turned into verbs using -ya instead of using a copula

The word feya as an optional copula used for linking subject to prepositional phrase

Obligatory direct object marker el with relative pronouns

denmo... kumo... → (denmo...) kumo...
denkwanti... kumo... → (denkwanti...) kukwanti...
dennumer... kumo... → (dennumer...) kunumer...

Omission of le and xa within clause rather than within sentence

abilli (possible/maybe) → bilpulbilbil
maxbil (probable, probably) → meypulmeymey
maximbil (most likely) → daymeypuldaymeymey
rili (again) → riri


  • one-word correlatives - keloka, kewatu, etc.
  • ke vs ku- correlatives: ku- correlatives used in subordinate clauses; ke correlatives in all other cases
  • Elimination of -li correlatives
  • Elimination of short forms kwan (some quantity of) and mer (several, a few) in favor of bankwanti and bannumer.
  • he- → he

Phase 3 (July 26th, 2020)

Conflict with double letters:

  • lidilide
  • imanimanu

Verb Transitivity
Adjusted from intransitive to transitive: harka, esto, atex, evolu (develop), rota, gulun

bilbil → bilpul
meymey → daybilpul
daymeymey → maxim daybilpul
riri → ripul
yur- → ami-
termo- → termoli
garme → termopul
bardi → bardipul
-kras → -krasi
krasi → krasia
-graf → -grafi
grafi → grafia
fobi → hawfu, -fobi/fobia
ologi → logia
leksi → lexi
taslim → taslum
narko → dava
loga → loga (say), pala (speak)
-bel → -ble

Adjectives in derived words

Adjective Compounds with -mo

New suffix -xi

Zero copula predicative prepositional phrases

Numerals in compounds

Numerical system for days of the week replaced by astronomical system

Preposition di now archaic

Two-consonant codas in proper nouns

Phase 4 (January 1st, 2021)

Preservation of SVO word order in all clauses by replacing relative pronouns (kute/kuto) with particle hu as relative clause marker and introducing interrogative clauses with ki and using ku-

Addition of metric numerals/prefixes

Copula is as predicate marker for phrases other than verb phrases

Names of the oceans

Proper noun compounds

Use of infinitives

Hu as descriptor clause marker

Ambitransitive verbs

Revised "Omission of Verb Particles"

Caveat 3 of a posteriori final vowels

Verbs to avoid beginning with le-, xa-, nun-, ger- and du-

Caveat 3 final vowels added; Arabic noun/verbs

eko- (eco-); eko → rusoti

-syon, -si or null

ja → ja- (para-, ad-)

Noun-noun compounds and elimination of most truncated affixes:

Epenthetic vowel for East Asian words: -o → -u

mosimu → mosem
medici → medis
-mey/meylu → fil/filya
new-/newe → neo
gal- → mal-
law-/lawo → lao
dawo → dao
daw- → pas- (pasa)
-tor → tora
-ble, bilpul → ible
wole → vole
har → har, yon
nere → ner
xaner, lener, xatel, letel → nerxali, nerleli, telixali, telileli
xadin, ledin → jaxadin, jaledin
is → sen
presen → presenti
awsen → awsenti
polo → kutubu
tahmini (evaluate, estimate) → tatmini (evaluate, assess, appraise, critique)
dongi → dongwi
bloku → bloki
klike → kliku
nete → neto
mamari → mamo
kox → hox
vagon → wagon
centra → centro
tayday → tayti
inklusi, exklusi → inkludi, exkludi
malaki → milki
dacu → daju

English er, ir and ur rendered er, ir and ur in Globasa, with ar as backup: esketi → eskirti

Phase 5 (January 1st, 2022)

Addition of -ete/-oto to Table of Correlatives

Optional hyphenation for compound words

One set of question words rather than two

Obligatory resumptive correlative adverb

-dom → -kamer

Phonotactic rules for culture-specific words

Simpler rule for optional omission of copula in informal language

jul → nenton
wal → nenhar

xuji (finger) → dari (digit, finger/toe), xuji (finger)
guje (break, fracture) → kasiru (break), guje (fracture)
sampo (walk) → anda (walk), sampo (stroll)
tofa (hair) → belo (hair, fur), tofa (head hair)

Papwa Neogine → Papwa Neogini
Lesoto → Lesutu
Kaboverde → Kabuverdi
Kupros → Kipros

-fon (instrument for speech sounds, suffix truncated from fono) → fon (audio instrument; not truncated, root word)

problem → problema
sistem → sistema
enzim → enzima

jazu → jaz → jazu
rapu → rap → rapu
bufet → bufeti
jip → jipu

estresu → estres
walu → wala
waw → wao
esfero → esfer
ansyoso → ansya
nendu → nentu
reyhan → rehani
kamera → kamer
kabineto → almari
jingu → jingo
dodu → doduku
fuza → fukuza
kayvu → kayvutu
kwayho → kweho
Law → Lawi
katus → kakutus

yamdukan → yamdom → restoran
ofata → mamba

Phase 6 (July 26th, 2023)

hu only for relative clauses

censur → censora
tramway → tramu
Hindi → Hindi/Hindu
sakate → sahte
kulube → kolube