Simple Present Tenses
Globasa's simple present tenses are expressed as follows.
Dictionary Verb Form
By default, the dictionary verb form expresses the general present tense, which is equivalent to the English simple present and present progressive.
Etymology of nun: Russian (ныне “nyne”), German (nun)
As a verb prefix, du- expresses continuous/habitual activity over a period of time, rather than a single moment in time. The prefix du- may be optionally omitted under the present tense, although it is best used for clarity.
As nouns, words with the prefix du- are equivalent to the gerund in English.
dulala - (the act of) singing
dudanse - (the act of) dancing
The prefix du- is truncated from dure (duration).
Etymology of dure: English, French, German, Spanish
The simple past tenses are expressed using the particle le.
Etymology of le: Mandarin (了 “le”), Swahili (-li-), Russian (-л “-l”)
Simple Future Tenses
The simple future tenses are expressed using the particle xa.
Etymology of xa: Arabic (سوف “sawf”, سا “sa”), English (shall), Dutch (zal)
Omission of Simple Tense Markers
Tense markers for the simple tenses may be omitted under the following contexts:
As seen above, the dictionary form of the verb can express the present, allowing for the omission of the particle nun.
In storytelling, as well, the dictionary verb form alone may be used to express the past, allowing for the omission of the particle le through out the discourse.
The particles le and xa are typically omitted within a sentence once they have been established with the first verb and the speaker or writer wishes to proceed with this tense within the sentence. To switch to a different simple tense within the same sentence, the appropriate particle must be used, including nun. With every new sentence, tense must be established, whether with le, xa or the dictionary verb form.
Unless so indicated with parentheses, the rest of the verb forms below are always obligatory.
Immediate Past and Future Tenses
The Immediate Past and Future Tenses are as follows.
The particle ja means immediately adjacent and is truncated from jara (neighbor).
Etymology of jara: Arabic (جارة “jara”), Swahili (jirani), Indonesia (jiran)
The compound tenses are formed by combining any two of the general tense particles (nun, le, xa).
Linguistically speaking, the compound tenses are used for expressing different grammatical aspects in detail. There are three aspects expressed through the compound tenses, which correlate with the three rows in each of the tables below: progressive (active), perfective (completed) and prospective.
While the simple tenses report events only from the point of view of the present moment, the compound tenses are used for reporting the temporal status and aspect of an event from the point of view of the present, past or future.
Some compound tenses are rarely or almost never used and are often best expressed using a simple tense instead. Others are more useful and may be rather common in speech, particularly the following: past active (le nun), present completed (nun le), future completed (xa le), past prospective (le xa).
Compound Present Tenses
The compound present tenses are expressed as follows:
Compound Past Tenses
The compound past tenses are expressed as follows:
Compound Future Tenses
The compound future tenses are expressed as follows:
The conditional mood is expressed using the particle ger.
The particle ger is truncated from eger (if).
Etymology of eger: Hindi (अगर “agar”), Persian (اگر “agar”), Turkish (eğer)
The subordinate clause (if...) uses the dictionary form of the verb.
Mi ger yam pingo eger mi yamwol.
I would eat the apple if I were hungry.
The passive voice is expressed using the verb particle be, which is applied after the tense markers but before any adverbs, including negation.
Etymology of be-: Mandarin (被 “bèi”), English (be), Norwegian (ble)
Although the passive mood can technically also be used with all the compound tenses, in practice it is most often used with the general present, past and future tenses, as illustrated above.
Note: The agent is expressed as the direct object without the need for a preposition to mark the agent, the way English marks the agent using "by" in sentences with the passive voice.
Myaw le no velosi yam piu.
The cat didn't eat the bird quickly.
Piu le be no velosi yam myaw.
The bird is eaten by the cat.
Alternatively, the particle be may be applied as a prefix to the dictionary form of the verb, the way it is applied in adjectives and noun. See suffixes -bil, -mus and -yen.
Piu le no velos beyam myaw.
The bird is eaten by the cat.
Imperative and Jussive Moods
In Globasa, commands (imperative mood) and exhortation (jussive mood) are both expressed using the particle am.
The particle am is truncated from amir (command)
Etymology of am: Arabic (أمر “amr”), Turkish (emir), Swahili (amri, -amuru)
The pronouns yu and uyu may be omitted when expressing the imperative mood.
The jussive mood is similar in meaning to the imperative, but is used for the 3rd person (te/to, ete/oto), as well as the 1st person singular (mi).
Negation for all verbs forms is expressed with the word no and, as an adverb, it immediately precedes the verb and any other modifying adverbs.
In Globasa, the infinitive verb form is expressed with the particle na, which precedes the dictionary verb form.
Kam yu wole na danse ton mi?
Do you want to dance with me?
Mi suki na soti gitara.
I like to play guitar.
Na xwexi Globasa asan.
To learn Globasa is easy.
Globasa asan na xwexi.
Globasa is easy to learn.
Na suyon in bahari amusane.
To swim in the sea is fun.
Amusane na suyon in bahari.
It is fun to swim in the sea.
Etymology of na: Greek (να “na”), Hindi (-ना “-na”)