Omission of Verb Particles
Verb particles may be omitted under the following contexts:
The dictionary form of the verb can express the simple present, allowing for the omission of the particle nun.
In storytelling, as well, the dictionary verb form alone may be used to narrate events. Technically speaking, the simple past particle le is not omitted in this case, but rather a story is told as if the scene of a film were being described, in the present tense.
Other than in the cases described above, tense/mood is established anew with every subject and is maintained without repetition for other verbs or until the tense/mood is changed within that clause. In other words, the particles for any tense/mood may be omitted in subsequent verbs within a clause once tense/mood has been established with the last verb.
Simple Present Tenses
Globasa's simple present tenses are expressed as follows.
Dictionary Verb Form
By default, the dictionary verb form expresses the general present tense, which is equivalent to the English simple present. In addition, the dictionary form alone may also express the present active tense, which is equivalent to the present progressive in English.
Etymology of nun: Russian (ныне “nyne”), German (nun)
As a verb prefix, du- expresses the continuous/habitual aspect, which depicts an activity or a state over an indefinite period of time, rather than happening in a single moment in time or for a specific length of time. The prefix du- is typically omitted with the present tense.
As nouns, words with the prefix du- are equivalent to the gerund in English.
dulala - (the act of) singing
dudanse - (the act of) dancing
The prefix du- is truncated from dure (duration).
Etymology of dure: English, French, German, Spanish
The simple past tenses are expressed using the particle le.
Etymology of le: Mandarin (了 “le”), Swahili (-li-), Russian (-л “-l”)
Simple Future Tenses
The simple future tenses are expressed using the particle xa.
Etymology of xa: Arabic (سوف “sawf”, سا “sa”), English (shall), Dutch (zal)
Immediate Past and Future Tenses
The immediate past and future tenses are expressed as follows.
The particle ja means immediately adjacent and is truncated from jara (neighbor).
Etymology of jara: Arabic (جارة “jara”), Swahili (jirani), Indonesia (jiran)
The compound tenses are formed by combining any two of the general tense particles (nun, le, xa).
Linguistically speaking, the compound tenses are used for expressing different grammatical aspects in detail. There are three aspects expressed through the compound tenses, which correlate with the three rows in each of the tables below: progressive (active), perfective (completed) and prospective.
While the simple tenses report events only from the point of view of the present moment, the compound tenses are used for reporting the temporal status and aspect of an event from the point of view of the present, past or future.
Some compound tenses are rarely used and are often best expressed using a simple tense instead. Others are more useful and may be rather common in speech, particularly the following tenses: past active (le nun), present completed (nun le), future completed (xa le), past prospective (le xa).
Compound Present Tenses
The compound present tenses are expressed as follows:
Compound Past Tenses
The compound past tenses are expressed as follows:
Compound Future Tenses
The compound future tenses are expressed as follows:
It is worth noting that whereas the perfect tenses in English do not always express a completed action, the completed tenses in Globasa always do.
The continuative aspect adverb dupul is used when an action or state began in the past and continues into the present. In English, this is expressed either with the present perfect or the perfect progressive.
Example Sentences with the Present Perfect in English
Mi no dupul oko te xorfe mesi tiga.
I haven't seen her since March.
Mi dupul kone te dur 30 nyan.
I have known him for 30 years.
Mi dupul gadibu.
I have been angry.
Yu dupul kepul?
How have you been?
Example Sentences with the Perfect Progressive in English
Mi dupul yam hin pingo dur un satu.
I have been eating this apple for one hour.
Yu dupul fale keto?
What have you been doing?
Mi dupul doxo hin kitabu xorfe leja dinalar.
I have been reading this book since last week.
The conditional mood is expressed using the particle ger and is typically omitted within a clause once it has been established with the first verb.
The particle ger is truncated from eger (if).
Etymology of eger: Hindi (अगर “agar”), Persian (اگر “agar”), Turkish (eğer)
The subordinate clause (if...) uses the dictionary form of the verb.
Mi ger yam pingo eger mi yamwol.
I would eat the apple if I were hungry.
The passive voice is expressed using the prefix be-.
Etymology of be-: Mandarin (被 “bèi”), English (be), Norwegian (ble)
Although the passive mood can technically also be used with all the compound tenses, in practice it is most often used with the general present, past and future tenses, as illustrated above.
Note: The agent is expressed as the direct object without the need for a preposition to mark the agent, the way English marks the agent using "by" in sentences with the passive voice.
Myaw le no velosi yam piu.
The cat didn't eat the bird quickly.
Piu le no velosi beyam myaw.
The bird wasn't quickly eaten by the cat.
Imperative and Jussive Moods
In Globasa, commands (imperative mood) and exhortation (jussive mood) are both expressed using the particle am.
The particle am is truncated from amir (command)
Etymology of am: Arabic (أمر “amr”), Turkish (emir), Swahili (amri, -amuru)
The pronouns yu and uyu may be omitted when expressing the imperative mood.
The jussive mood is similar in meaning to the imperative mood but is used for the 3rd person (te/to, ete/oto), as well as the 1st person singular (mi).
The jussive mood can also function as a mandative subjunctive within subordinate clauses. The mandative subjunctive expresses a demand, requirement, request, recommendation or suggestion.
Mi wole ki te am safegi sesu kamera.
I want him to clean his room.
Mi peti ki imi am xorata jaldi.
I ask that we arrive early.
Kitabu el kuto xwexiyen am doxo no daymo lungo.
The book that the pupils are to read is not very long.
Negation for all verbs forms is expressed with the word no and, as an adverb, it immediately precedes the verb and any other modifying adverbs.
In Globasa, the infinitive verb form is marked with the particle na and is typically omitted within a clause once it has been established with the first verb. See Infinitive Verb Phrases under Sentence Structure.
Etymology of na: Greek (να “na”), Hindi (-ना “-na”)