Truncated Morphemes

A special feature of Globasa is the use of truncated morphemes. Truncated morphemes are function words or affixes with a shorter form and typically a narrower or a broader meaning than their parent words. Truncated morphemes are not derived words per se, and in fact they are best regarded as entirely different root words that just so happen to be similar in form to certain content words.

 

A similar feature is found in natural languages. In the world's creole languages, for example, it is common to see function words arise out of content words from the parent language. In fact, this is how most natural languages have evolved and generated function words and grammatical morphemes. For a fascinating discussion on this topic see The Unfolding of Language: An Evolutionary Tour of Mankind's Greatest Invention, by Guy Deutscher. 

The following function words are truncated morphemes:

  • cel (to, for, in order to) from cele (goal, purpose)

  • daw (through) from dawo (way/path)

  • dur (during) from dure (duration)

  • fal (done by) from fale (do)

  • fasi (emphatic particle) from enfasi (emphasis)

  • fol (according to, alongside of) from folo (follow)

  • ger (would) from eger (if)

  • har (with, having/using) from hare (have)

  • ja (immediately adjacent) from jara (neighbor)

  • jul (separate from, without) from jula (separate, apart)

  • kom (than) from kompara (comparison/compare)

  • kos (due to, because of) from kosa (cause)

  • kwan (some small amount of) from ban kwanti (a certain, unspecified, quantity)

  • kwas (as if) from kwasi (seemingly)

  • mer (several, a few) from ban numer (a certain, unspecified, number)

  • sol (only) from solo (alone)

  • tem (about, regarding) from tema (topic, theme)

  • ton (together with) from tongo (together)

  • wey (around, approximately) from jowey (surroundings)

The following prefixes are truncated morphemes:​
 

  • aw- (away) from awsen (absent)

  • bon- (good, eu-) from bono (good)

  • bur- (bad) from buru (bad)

  • col- (ugly) from colo (ugly)

  • day- (augmentative) from dayo (large, big)

  • du- (continuous/habitual aspect) from dure (duration)

  • fin- (end/finish) from fini (end, finish)

  • fron- (forewards) from fronta (forehead, front)

  • gal- (mis-) from gale (wrong, mistaken)

  • haw- (aero-) from hawa (air)

  • jun- (offspring) from juni (young)

  • law- (old) from lawo (old, opposite of young)

  • lil- (diminutive) from lile (small, little)

  • lam- (ancient) from lama (old, opposite of new)

  • mel- (beautiful) from meli (beautiful, pretty)

  • new- (neo-) from newe (new)

  • pos- (opposite) from opos (opposite)

  • pre- (here) from presen (present)

  • ru- (retro, backwards) from ruke (back, rear)

  • xor- (start, begin) from xoru (start, begin)

  • yur- (-in-law) from yuri (jurisprudence, science/philosophy of law)

The following suffixes are truncated morphemes:​​

 

  • -bil (can/-ive; -able/-ible) from abil (can, able to)

  • -bol (ball) from bola (ball)

  • -ci (branch of medicine) from medici (medicine/medicate)

  • -cu (intransitivefrom cudu (obtain, acquire, get, take)

  • -dom (place) from dome (place)

  • -fon (speech sound instrument) from fono (speech sound)

  • -hol (sheath) from hole (sheath)

  • -gi (transitivefrom gibe (give)

  • -kal (-less) from kali (empty)

  • -kan (store) from dukan (store)

  • -kax (container) from kaxa (container)

  • -kef (boss, leader, head) from kefa (boss)

  • -kras (government) from krasi (rule/govern)

  • -lar (collective) from lari (collection of units)

  • -lay (worthy of) from laye (worthy)

  • -logi (-ology) from ologi (specialty)

  • -lor (shade) from kolor (color)

  • -mar (ill, sick) from bimar (ill, sick)

  • -men (document) from dokumen (document)

  • -mey (inclined to) from meylu (inclination)

  • -mon (element or part of a whole) from mono (item, element/unit of a whole)

  • -mus (must; must be) from musi (must)

  • -pul (-ful) from pule (full)

  • -sa (language; animal sounds) from basa (language)

  • -sim (-like) from similar (similar)

  • -so (meat) from maso (meat)

  • -tim (team, body) from time (team)

  • -tis (-itis) from itis (inflammation)

  • -tor (-ator) from motor (engine, motor)

  • -tul (tool, instrument) from tule (tool)

  • -wol (wanting) from wole (want)

  • -xey (thing, substance) from xeyu (thing)

  • -yen (any DNA-based being, -ist, -er, -an) from yene (any DNA-based being)

 

 

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