Truncated Morphemes

A special feature of Globasa is the use of truncated morphemes. Truncated morphemes are function words or affixes with a shorter form and typically a narrower or a broader meaning than their parent words. Truncated morphemes are not derived words per se, and in fact are best regarded as entirely different root words that are similar in form to certain content words as a way to facilitate the process of learning them. As a result, truncated morphemes need not bear a consistent pattern, as discussed here.

 

A similar feature is found in natural languages. In the world's creole languages, for example, it is common to see function words arise out of content words from the parent language. In fact, this is how most natural languages have evolved and generated function words and grammatical morphemes. For a fascinating discussion on this topic see The Unfolding of Language: An Evolutionary Tour of Mankind's Greatest Invention, by Guy Deutscher.  

The following function words are truncated morphemes:

  • cel (to, for, in order to) from cele (goal, purpose)

  • daw (through) from dawo (way, path)

  • dur (during) from dure (duration)

  • fal (done by) from fale (do)

  • fol (according to, alongside of) from folo (follow)

  • ger (would) from eger (if)

  • har (with, having/using) from hare (have)

  • ja (immediately adjacent) from jara (neighbor)

  • jul (separate from, without) from jula (separate, apart)

  • kom (than) from kompara (comparison/compare)

  • kos (due to, because of) from kosa (cause)

  • kwas (as if) from kwasi (seemingly)

  • sol (only) from solo (alone)

  • tas (to, for, direct object marker) from taslim (receive)

  • tem (about, regarding) from tema (topic, theme)

  • ton (together with) from tongo (together)

  • wal (without, not having, not using) from wala (not have, lack)

  • wey (around, approximately) from jowey (surroundings)

The following prefixes are truncated morphemes:​
 

  • aw- (away) from awsen (absent)

  • bon- (good, eu-) from bono (good)

  • bur- (bad) from buru (bad)

  • col- (ugly) from colo (ugly)

  • day- (augmentative) from dayo (large, big)

  • du- (continuous/habitual aspect) from dure (duration)

  • fin- (end/finish) from fini (end, finish)

  • fron- (forwards) from fronta (forehead, front)

  • gal- (mis-) from gale (wrong, mistaken)

  • haw- (aero-) from hawa (air)

  • jun- (offspring) from juni (young)

  • law- (old) from lawo (old, opposite of young)

  • lil- (diminutive) from lile (small, little)

  • lam- (ancient) from lama (old, opposite of new)

  • mel- (beautiful) from meli (beautiful, pretty)

  • new- (neo-) from newe (new)

  • pos- (opposite) from opos (opposite)

  • pre- (here) from presen (present)

  • ru- (retro, backwards) from ruke (back, rear)

  • xor- (start, begin) from xoru (start, begin)

  • yur- (-in-law) from yuri (jurisprudence, science/philosophy of law)

The following suffixes are truncated morphemes:​​

 

  • -bil (can/-ive; -able/-ible) from abil (can, able to)

  • -bol (ball) from bola (ball)

  • -ci (branch of medicine) from medici (medicine/medicate)

  • -cu (intransitivefrom cudu (obtain, acquire, get, take)

  • -dom (place) from dome (place)

  • -fon (speech sound instrument) from fono (speech sound)

  • -hol (sheath) from hole (sheath)

  • -gi (transitivefrom gibe (give)

  • -graf (recording) from grafi (record/recording)

  • -kal (-less) from kali (empty)

  • -kan (store) from dukan (store)

  • -kax (container) from kaxa (container)

  • -kef (boss, leader, head) from kefa (boss)

  • -kras (government) from krasi (rule, govern)

  • -lar (collective) from lari (collection of units)

  • -lay (worthy of) from laye (worthy)

  • -logi (-ology) from ologi (specialty)

  • -lor (shade of color) from kolor (color)

  • -mar (ill, sick) from bimar (ill, sick)

  • -men (document) from dokumen (document)

  • -mey (inclined to) from meylu (inclination)

  • -mon (element or part of a whole) from mono (item, element, unit of a whole)

  • -mos (season) from mosimu (season)

  • -mus (must; must be) from musi (must)

  • -pul (-ful) from pule (full)

  • -sa (language; animal sounds) from basa (language)

  • -sim (-like) from similar (similar)

  • -so (meat) from maso (meat)

  • -tim (team, body) from timu (team)

  • -tis (-itis) from itis (inflammation)

  • -tor (-ator) from motor (engine, motor)

  • -tul (tool, instrument) from tule (tool)

  • -wol (wanting) from wole (want)

  • -xey (thing, substance) from xeyu (thing)

  • -yen (living being, -ist, -er, -an) from yene (any living form)

 

 

cc0-88x31.png

To the extent possible under law, Globasa.net has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to this work.

  • Facebook