Pronouns

Subject/Object Pronouns 

 

Globasa's subject/object pronouns are as follows:

The gender-neutral te and ete are used for all living forms and personified objects. If it is necessary to emphasize gender, the adjectives fem and man, also used for nouns, may be used as prefixes. 
 

  • femte - she

  • mante - he​

  • femete/manete - they

seli

The adjective seli is used with subject pronouns to express emphasis of self.

 

seli mi - I myself
seli yu - you yourself

etc. 

Possessive Adjectives 

The possessive adjectives are derived from the pronouns by adding the suffix -su:

 

As with the pronouns, the gender-neutral possessive adjectives tesu and etesu are typically used for all third-person animate beings. If it is necessary to emphasize gender, the prefixes fem and man may be used.
 

  • femtesu - her

  • mantesu - his

  • femetesu/manetesu - their

Possessive Pronouns 

The possessive pronouns are derived from the possessive adjectives by adding the pronoun (e)te or (o)to:

Third-Person Pronouns at End of Noun Phrases

As seen under Correlatives, third-person pronouns (te/to) are also used for correlative pronouns since determiners (ke, hin, den, etc.) must always be followed by a (pro)noun.  

Similarly, te/to, as well as ete/oto when appropriate, are used at the end of noun phrases when the noun is understood.

One reason for this rule, as illustrated below, is that since nouns and verbs have the same form in Globasa, leaving a determiner or an adjective without a (pro)noun can potentially be mistaken as modifying the noun/verb word immediately following.

 

Multi te loga sol Englisa. 

Many (people) speak only English.

 

Another reason, as illustrated below, is that Globasa does not use articles. So whereas English is able to use adjectives as nouns, Globasa cannot. 
 

bono te, buru te ji colo te
the good (one), the bad (one) and the ugly (one)

Third-Person Pronouns with Sentence-Initial Adj/Adv Phrases

Simple sentence-initial adj/adv phrases, usually consisting of a single adj/adv word, must end in te/to in order to separate the phrase from the subject. 

Fobigido te, nini le jagecu.

Frightened, the boy woke up.

Unyum to, te le idi cel banko.

First, she went to the bank.

Doxone te, nini le xorsomno.

Reading, the boy fell asleep.

Alternatively, sentence-initial present participles may be expressed with a prepositional phrase using a noun/verb word:

Fe doxo, nini le xorsomno. or Dur doxo, nini le xorsomno. 
Reading, the boy fell asleep.

 

This construction is useful particularly when then present participle includes a direct object:

 

Dur doxo sesu preferido kitabu, nini le xorsomno.

During the reading of his favorite book (or: While reading his favorite book), the boy fell asleep.

 

In the sentence above, note that the preposition "of" is not translated. Since Globasa's nouns and verbs have the same form, noun phrases equivalent to verb phrases are also identical. 

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