Function Words:

Conjunctions, Prepositions and Function Adverbs

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Conjunctions and Relative Pronoun
 

  • ji - and

    • ji... ji... - both... and... ​​

  • or - or

    • or... or... - either... or...​

  • nor - nor

    • nor... nor... - neither... nor...​

  • kam - whether; yes/no question particle

    • kam... kam... - whether... or...

  • mas - but
     

  • eger - if​
     

  • kwas - as if [kwasi - seeming(ly)]
     

  • ki - that

 

Fe
 

Fe is a multi-purpose preposition with a general, indefinite meaning, often translated as at.

Fe can be optionally omitted in the following cases:

(1) in sentence-initial expressions with -ya; (2) with correlatives; (3) with certain phrases of time. 

  • fe - at, indefinite meaning​

    • fe fato - In fact, Actually

    • fe fini - Finally

    • fe bonxanse - Luckily, Fortunately

    • fe asif - Regretfully, Unfortunately

    • fe onxala - Hopefully

    • fe folo - ​Therefore, Consequently, So

    • fe misal - For example

    • fe xugwan - Usually

    • fe benji - In essence, Basically

    • fe moy kaso - In any case, At any rate

    • fe alo kaso - Otherwise

    • fe riya - Again

    • (fe) abrutoya - Suddenly​

    • (fe) totalya - Absolutely, Totally

    • (fe) yakinya - Certainly 

    • (fe) idealya - Ideally

    • (fe) mimbayya - Obviously, Of course

    • (fe) mingoya - Clearly, Evidently

    • (fe) sipulya - Indeed 

    • (fe) abilya - Maybe, Perhaps

    • (fe) foriya - Immediately

    • (fe) pinpanya - Oftentimes

    • (fe) satiya - Truly

    • (fe) umumiya - In general, Generally

    • (fe) nunya - Now

    • (fe) leya - In the past, Previously

    • (fe) lenerya - Recently 

    • (fe) letelya - A long time ago 

    • (fe) xaya - In the future, Later, Afterwards

    • (fe) xanerya - Soon 

    • (fe) xatelya - In a long time 

Prepositions of Place

  • in - in (literally "inside of")

    • inli - (adj) interior​

    • inya - (n) inside

    • fe inya - (on the) inside; within
       

  • ex - outside (of), out

    • exli - (adj) exterior

    • exya - (n) outside​

    • fe exya - (on the) outside​; without
       

  • per - on 

    • perli - superficial, surface

    • perya - surface

    • fe perya - on the surface
       

  • bax - under(neath)​, beneath, below

    • baxli - underlying

    • fe baxya - underneath, below
       

  • of - off (of), out of, from
     

  • cel - to​ (movement, indirect object marker), for, in order to [cele - goal/purpose]

    • celki - so that

  • hoy - toward​(s) [hoyo - orientation/direction]

  • intre - between

    • fe intreya - in between
       

  • ultra - beyond

    • fe ultraya - beyond
       

  • infra - below​

    • infrali - inferior​

    • infraya - inferiority, "belowness"

 

  • infer - shorter form of infraya

    • fe infer - down below 

    • cel infer - down (downwards)
       

  • supra - above

    • suprali - superior​

    • supraya - superiority, "aboveness"

 

  • super - shorter form of supraya

    • fe super - up above 

    • cel super - up (upwards)

 

  • daw - through​​​ [dawo - path/way]
     

  • tras - across, trans-​

  • wey - around [jowey - surroundings]

  • fol - alongside (of)​, according to [folo - follow]

    • fe folya - alongside, accordingly

    • posfol - against (in the opposite direction of)

Phrasal Prepositions and Conjunctions
 

  • ruke - back, rear

    • fe ruke - in the back 

    • fe ruke de - behind, in back of

  • kape - head​

    • fe kape - on top 

    • fe kape de - on top of
       

  • fronta - forehead, front

    • fe fronta - in front

    • fe fronta de - in front of
       

  • opos - opposite

    • fe opos - on the contrary​, face to face

    • fe opos de - opposite, against (face to face), contrary to

  • peda - foot, bottom

    • fe peda - at the bottom​

    • fe peda de - at the bottom​ of

 

  • comen - side

    • fe comen - on the side

    • fe comen de - next to, beside, on the side (of)

  • tayday - substitute, substitution

    • fe tayday - instead

    • fe tayday de - instead of + noun phrase

    • fe tayday ki - instead of + sentence

  • kompara - comparison

    • fe kompara - in comparison​

    • fe kompara de - in comparison to 

    • fe kompara ki - whereas

  • kosa - cause

    • fe kosa de; kos - due to, because of 

    • fe kosa ki; koski  - because​, since

  • nere  - nearby, close (to)

    • fe nereya de; nere fe  -  near, close to

  • teli - far, remote, distant 

    • fe teliya de; teli fe - far from

Other Prepositions

  • el - direct object marker 

    • Functions as a preposition

    • Used for SOV and OSV word orders (typically only used in poetry and song lyrics):

  • de - of (belonging to)

    • deya - belong to​

  • tem - about​ [tema - theme/topic]
     

  • pro - for, in favor of, in exchange for, pro (opp anti)
     

  • anti - against

    • antili - ​opposing

    • antiya - opposition, objection

    • antigi - oppose, object, counter
       

  • fal - (done) by [fale - do/make]
     

  • har - with (having/using), by means of [hare - have]

    • nohar - without (not having/using)

 

  • ton - together with [tongo - together]
     

  • jul - separate from; without [jula - separate/apart]
     

  • por - per, for each
     

Function Words of Time
 

  • dure - duration

    • fe dure - in the meantime​

    • fe dure de; dur - during 

    • fe dure ki; durki - while

 

  • fin- - (prefix) end, come to [fini - finish/end]

    • finfe - (prep) until

    • finki - (conj)​ until

 

  • xor- - (prefix) beginning [xoru - begin/start]

    • xorfe - from, since

    • xorki - (ever) since 

  • lener - recent(ly) [nere - near]
     

  • xaner - soon
     

  • letel - a long time ago [teli - far]
     

  • xatel - in a long time

 

  • jaldi - early

  • dyer - late

 

  • haji - still

    • no haji - no longer, not anymore​​

  • uje - already

    • no uje - not yet

  • fori - immediate(ly)
     

  • pinpan - frequent(ly), often
     

  • nadir - rare(ly), seldom

 

  • mara - time (occasion) 

    • (fe) un mara​ - once

    • (fe) mer mara - sometimes​

 

  • nun - present tense particle

    • nunli - present(ly), current(ly)

    • nunya - the present

    • fe nunya - in the present, presently

    • nundina - today​​

    • nunli dina - nowadays

  • le - past tense particle​

    • leya - the past

      • ...fe ​leya: in the past, previously​​

    • leli ​- past, previous, former, ex-

    • lefe - before + noun; ago

    • lefe or fe - by (on or before)

    • xorlefe - for ("since... ago")

    • leki - before + sentence
       

  • xa - future tense particle​

    • xaya - the future

      • fe xaya - in the future

    • xali -​ (adj/adv) future

    • xafe - after/in + noun

    • xaki - after + sentence

  • ja - (particle) immediately adjacent [jara - neighbor]

    • leja - ("past-adjacent") last​

      • leja dina; ledina - yesterday​

    • ja le - just (have)

    • xaja  - ("future-adjacent") next

      • xaja dina; xadina - tomorrow​

    • ja xa - be about to 

Function Words of Quantity

  • kriban - almost
     

  • kufi - enough, sufficient​

  • mer - a few, several [ban numer - some unspecified number of]

  • kwan - some (small amount of) [ban kwanti - some unspecified quantity of]

 ​

  • plu - multiple (used for expressing plurality)
     

  • multi - many, much

  • xosu - few, little (of quantity) [opp multi]
     

  • dayli - greatly, very
     

  • lilli - a little [opp dayli]
     

  • go - too [godo - excessive, too much, too many]
     

  • total - entire, whole​​

  • eskaso - scarce, scarcely, barely, hardly
     

  • wey - approximately, roughly, about, around [jowey - surroundings]

 

Other Function Adverbs

 

  • no - no, not, don't, doesn't

  • si - yes

  • hata - even

    • hata no - not even

    • (fe) hataya - even so, however, neverthe​less, nonetheless, in spite of that

    • (fe) hataya de  - in spite of, despite

    • (fe) hataya ki - even though, although, despite the fact that

 

  • pia - also
     

  • sol - only [solo - alone]


Comparison 
 

  • denli... kupul...  - as​... as...

  • max - more

    • maxli - additional, further, extra 

    • fe maxya - moreover, furthermore

    • ji maxya - et cetera
       

  • kom - than (as compared with) [kompara- comparison/compare]
     

  • max... kom... - more... than...
     

  • max kom - more than​​

  • maxim - the most

  • maximum - maximum, at most​, as... as possible

    • maximumya - the maximum

 

  • maxori - most (the majority of), mostly

    • maxoriya - majority​
       

  • maxus - plus, with addition of, in addition to, besides

    • maxusli - ​positive (+1, +2, etc.)

    • (fe) maxusya - additionally, besides​​

  • min - less/fewer
     

  • min... kom... - less... than...
     

  • min kom - fewer than
     

  • minim - the least
     

  • minimum - minimum, at least

    • minimumya - the minimum​

 

  • minori - the minority of

    • minoriya - minority
       

  • minus - minus, except for

    • minusli - negative (-1, -2, etc.)

    • (fe) minusya - except for that​

    • minus ki - unless​​​

Emphatic Particle

  • fasi - emphatic particle [enfasi - emphasis]

    • Globasa's strict word order does not allow moving phrases for emphasis. Instead, it uses to particle fasi for placing contrastive emphasis on the word that follows it.

Kam mi le oko fasi yu in parke?
Was it you whom I saw at the park?

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
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