Function Words:

Conjunctions, Prepositions and Function Adverbs

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Conjunctions
 

  • ji - and

    • ji... ji... - both... and... ​​

  • or - or

    • or... or... - either... or...​

  • nor - nor

    • nor... nor... - neither... nor...​

  • kam - whether; yes/no question particle

    • kam... kam... - whether... or...

  • mas - but
     

  • eger - if​
     

  • kwas - as if [kwasi - seeming(ly)]
     

  • ki - that

 

Fe
 

Fe is a multi-purpose preposition with a general, indefinite meaning, often translated as at. It may be used with as a preposition of time or place (see below), in sentence initial phrases with nouns, and in cases where no preposition with a definite meaning is suitable. 

  • feya - (v) be (located) at

Prepositions of Place

  • in - in (literally "within", whether in space or time)

    • inli - (adj) interior​, inner

    • inya - (n) inside; (v) be in, be inside (of)

    • fe inya - (on the) inside; within
       

  • ex - outside (of), out

    • exli - (adj) exterior, external

    • exya - (n) outside; (v) be outside (of)​

    • fe exya - (on the) outside​; without
       

  • per - on 

    • perli - superficial, surface

    • perya - (n) surface; (v) be on

    • fe perya - on the surface
       

  • bax - under(neath)​, beneath, below

    • baxli - underlying

    • baxya - (n) underneath; (v) be under(neath)

    • fe baxya - underneath, below
       

  • of - off (of), out of, from

    • ofya - (v) be from​
       

  • cel - to​ (movement, indirect object marker), for, in order to [cele - goal/purpose]

    • celya - (v) be for

    • celki - so that

  • hoy - toward​(s) [hoyo - orientation/direction]

    • hoyya - (v) be towards​

  • intre - between

    • intreya - (n) between; (v) be between

    • fe intreya - in between
       

  • ultra - beyond

    • ultraya - (n) beyond; (v) be beyond

    • fe ultraya - beyond
       

  • infra - below​

    • infrali - inferior​

    • infraya - (n) inferiority, belowness; (v) be below

 

  • infer - shorter form of infraya: (n) inferiority, belowness; (v) be below

    • fe infer - down below, down under 

    • cel infer - down (downwards)
       

  • supra - above

    • suprali - superior​

    • supraya - (n) superiority, aboveness; (v) be above

  • super - shorter form of supraya: (n) superiority, aboveness; (v) be above

    • fe super - up above 

    • cel super - up (upwards)

  • daw - through​​​ [dawo - path/way]

    • dawya - (v) be through​
       

  • tras - across, trans-​

    • trasya - (n) other side; (v) ​be across, be on the other side of

  • wey - around [jowey - surroundings]

    • weyya - (v) be around​

  • fol - alongside (of)​, according to [folo - follow]

    • folya - (v) be along

    • fe folya - alongside, accordingly

    • posfol - against (in the opposite direction of)

    • posfolya - (v) be against (in the opposite direction of)

Phrasal Prepositions and Conjunctions
 

  • ruke - (n) back, rear; (v) be behind, be in the back

    • fe ruke - in the back 

    • fe ruke de - behind, in the back of

  • kape - (n) head​; (v) be on top (of) 

    • fe kape - on top 

    • fe kape de - on top of
       

  • fronta - (n) forehead, front; (v) be in front (of) 

    • fe fronta - in front

    • fe fronte de - in front of
       

  • muka - (n) face; (v) be facing, be face to face, be across (from)

    • fe muka - ​across, face to face

    • fe muka de - across from
       

  • opos - (n) opposite; (v) be the opposite of

    • fe opos - on the contrary​

    • fe opos de - opposite, contrary to, against (physically)

  • peda - (n) foot, bottom; (v) be at the bottom (of)

    • fe peda - at the bottom​ 

    • fe peda de - at the bottom of

  • comen - (n) side; (v) be beside

    • fe comen - on the side 

    • fe comen de - on the side (of), next to, beside

  • tayday - (n) substitute, substitution; (v) substitute, replace

    • fe tayday - instead 

    • fe tayday de - instead of

    • fe tayday ki - instead of + sentence

  • kompara - (n) comparison; (v) compare 

    • fe kompara - in comparison 

    • fe kompara de - in comparison to

    • fe kompara ki - whereas

  • kosa - (n) cause; (v) cause 

    • fe kosa de; kos - due to, because of

    • kosya - (v) is because of

    • fe kosa kikoski  - because​, since 

    • kosya ki - is because

  • nere  - nearby, close (to), approximately

    • nere fe  -  near, close to

  • teli - far, far away, remote, distant 

    • teli fe - far from

Other Prepositions

  • el - direct object marker 

    • Functions as a preposition

    • Used for SOV and OSV word orders (typically only used in poetry and song lyrics)

  • de - of (belonging to)

    • deya - (v) belong to​

  • tem - about​ [tema - theme/topic]

    • temya - (v) be about​
       

  • pro - for, in favor of, in exchange for, pro- (opp anti)

    • proya - be for, be in favor of, be in exchange for​
       

  • anti - against

    • antili - ​opposing

    • antiya - (n) opposition, objection; (v) is against, oppose, object, counter
       

  • fal - (done) by [fale - do/make]

    • falya - (v) be by

  • har - with (having/using), by means of [hare - have]

    • harya - be (done) with, be by means of

    • nohar - without (not having/using)

    • noharya - be (done) without

  • ton - together with, along with [tongo - together]

    • tonya - (v) be​ with, keep company
       

  • jul - separate from; without [jula - separate/apart]

    • julya - (v) be without (the company of)​
       

  • por - per, for each
     

Function Words of Time
 

  • dure - (n) duration; (v) last

    • fe dure - in the meantime​

    • fe dure de; dur - during + noun phrase

    • fe dure ki; durki - while + sentence

  • fin- - (prefix) end, come to [fini - finish/end]

    • finfe - (prep) until + noun phrase

    • finki - (conj)​ until + sentence

  • xor- - (prefix) beginning [xoru - begin/start]

    • xorfe - from, since + noun phrase

    • xorki - (ever) since + sentence

  • lener - recent(ly) [nere - near]
     

  • xaner - soon
     

  • letel - a long time ago [teli - far]
     

  • xatel - in a long time

  • jaldi - early

  • dyer - late

  • haji - still

    • no haji - no longer, not anymore​​

  • uje - already

    • no uje - not yet

  • fori - immediate(ly)
     

  • pinpan - frequent(ly), often
     

  • nadir - rare(ly), seldom

  • mara - time (occasion) 

    • unmara​ - once

    • mermara - sometimes​

  • nun - present tense particle

    • nunli - present(ly), current(ly)

    • nunya - the present

      • fe nunya - in the present, presently, now

    • nundina - today​​

    • fe nunli dina - nowadays

  • le - past tense particle

    • leya - the past

      • fe ​leya - in the past, previously​​

    • leli ​- past, previous, former, ex-

    • lefe - before + noun phrase; ago

    • feya lefe - (v) be before 

    • lefe or fe - by (on or before)

    • xorlefe - for ("since... ago")

    • leki - before + sentence
       

  • xa - future tense particle​

    • xaya - the future

      • fe xaya - in the future, later on, afterwards

    • xali -​ (adj/adv) future

    • xafe - after/in + noun phrase

    • feya xafe - be after

    • xaki - after + sentence

  • ja - (particle) immediately adjacent [jara - neighbor]

    • leja - ("past-adjacent") last​

      • leja dina; ledina - yesterday​

    • ja le - just (have)

    • xaja  - ("future-adjacent") next

      • xaja dina; xadina - tomorrow​

    • ja xa - be about to 

Function Words of Quantity and Degree

  • kriban - almost
     

  • kufi - sufficient, enough (of quantity)​​​

    • kufimo - sufficiently, enough​ (of degree)

  • mer - a few, several [bannumer - some unspecified number of]

  • kwan - some (small amount of) [bankwanti - some unspecified quantity of]

 ​

  • plu - multiple (used for expressing plurality)
     

  • multi - many, much

  • xosu - few, little (of quantity) [opp multi]
     

  • daymo - greatly, very
     

  • lilmo - a little [opp daymo]
     

  • go - too [godo - excessive, too much, too many]
     

  • total - entire, whole​​

  • eskaso - scarce, scarcely, barely, hardly
     

  • wey - approximately, roughly, about, around [jowey - surroundings]

    • weyya - (v) be approximately, be roughly, be about, be around

Other Function Adverbs

  • no - no, not, don't, doesn't

    • noli - negative​
       

  • si - yes

    • sili - affirmative​

  • hata - even

    • hata no - not even

    • fe hataya - even so, however, neverthe​less, nonetheless, in spite of that

    • fe hataya de  - in spite of, despite

    • fe hataya ki - even though, although, despite the fact that

  • pia - also
     

  • sol - only [solo - alone]


Comparison 
 

  • denmo... kumo...  - as​... as...

  • max - more

    • maxli - moreover, further, furthermore

    • ji maxya - et cetera
       

  • kom - than (as compared with) [kompara- comparison/compare]
     

  • max... kom... - more (a greater number of)... + n/v word than...
     

  • maxmo... kom... - more (to a greater degree)... + adj/adv word than​​...

  • maxim - the most

  • maximum - maximum, at most​, as... as possible

    • maximumya - the maximum

 

  • maxori - most (the majority of), mostly

    • maxoriya - majority​
       

  • maxus - (prep) plus, with addition of, in addition to, besides

    • maxusli - ​(adj/adv) positive (+1, +2, etc.), additional, additionally, extra, besides

  • min - fewer/less
     

  • min... kom... - fewer/less... + n/v word than...
     

  • minmo... kom... - less... + adj/adv word than...
     

  • minim - the least
     

  • minimum - minimum, at least

    • minimumya - the minimum​

 

  • minori - the minority of

    • minoriya - minority
       

  • minus - (prep) minus, except for

    • minusli - (adj/adv) negative (-1, -2, etc.), except for that​

    • minuski - unless​​​

 
 
 
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