Function Words:

Conjunctions, Prepositions and Function Adverbs

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Conjunctions
 

  • ji - and

    • iji... ji... - both... and... ​​

  • or - or

    • oro... or... - either... or...​

  • nor - nor

    • noro... nor... - neither... nor...​

  • kam - yes/no question particle

    • kama... kam... - whether... or (whether)...

  • mas - but
     

  • eger - if​
     

  • kwas - as if [kwasi - seeming(ly)]
     

  • ki - that

 

Fe
 

Fe is a multi-purpose preposition with a general, indefinite meaning, often translated as at or of (relating to). It may be used as a preposition of time or place, in certain common phrases, in prepositional phrases as an alternative to -li adjectives, and in cases where no other preposition is suitable.

Fe is optional with expressions of time, as shown in the following examples:

 

(feban mara - on a certain occasion, once, once upon a time
(fe) dumara - sometimes, on occasion, at times
(fe) hin mara - this time

(fe) hin momento - in this moment
(fe) dina un - (on) Monday
(fe) dudina un - (on) Mondays
(fe) nundina - today (used as an adverb)
(fe) tiga dina fe xaya - three days later

 

The expressions fe nunya (at present, presently, now), fe leya (in the past, previously) and fe xaya (in the future, later on, afterwards) are typically left intact, partly as a way to avoid confusion with leja (last, former) and xaja (next, following). 

The derived word feya (be at) is used as a copula with phrases of time and place.

Expressing Possession

 

Globasa has two ways of expressing possession. The preposition de (of, belonging to) is used to express possession by nouns. 

 

Baytu de Maria dayo.
"House of Mary is big." 
Mary's house is big. 

 

If the noun is understood, a pronoun is used (te/to or ete/oto):

To de Maria dayo.
Mary's is big. 

 

The suffix -su is added to pronouns to form possessive adjectives. Similarly, the particle su is used to express possession by nouns and is equivalent to the English possessive suffix 's. Unlike in English, however, su is used as a separate word. 

 

Maria su baytu dayo.
Mary's house is big. 

 

If the noun is understood, a pronoun is used (te/to or ete/oto):

Maria su to dayo.

Mary's is big. 

Prepositions of Place

  • in - in, inside of

    • inli - (adj) interior​, inner

    • inya - (n) inside; (v) be in, be inside (of)

    • fe inya - (on the) inside; within
       

  • ex - outside (of), out

    • exli - (adj) exterior, external

    • exya - (n) outside; (v) be outside (of)​

    • fe exya - (on the) outside​; without
       

  • per - on 

    • perli - (adj) superficial, surface

    • perya - (n) surface; (v) be on

    • fe perya - on the surface
       

  • bax - under(neath)​, beneath, below

    • baxli - underlying

    • baxya - (n) underneath; (v) be under(neath)

    • fe baxya - underneath, below
       

  • of - off (of), out of, from

    • ofya - (v) be from​
       

  • cel - to​ (movement) [cele - goal/purpose]

    • celya - (v) be on the way to, be moving to, be for

    • celki - so that, in order that

    • cel na - in order to

    • cel in - into

    • cel ex - out from, out of
       

  • hoy - toward​(s) [hoyo - orientation/direction]

    • hoyya - (v) be towards​

  • intre - between

    • intreya - (n) between; (v) be between

    • fe intreya - in between
       

  • ultra - beyond

    • ultraya - (n) beyond; (v) be beyond

    • fe ultraya - beyond
       

  • infra - below​

    • infrali - inferior​

    • infraya - (n) inferiority, belowness; (v) be below

 

  • infer - shorter form of infraya: (n) inferiority, belowness; (v) be below

    • fe infer - down below, down under 

    • cel infer - down, downwards
       

  • supra - above

    • suprali - superior​

    • supraya - (n) superiority, aboveness; (v) be above

  • super - shorter form of supraya: (n) superiority, aboveness; (v) be above

    • fe super - up above 

    • cel super - up, upwards

  • daw - through​​​ [dawo - path/way]

    • dawya - (v) be through​
       

  • tras - across, on the other side of, trans-​

    • trasya - (n) other side; (v) ​be across, be on the other side of

  • cis - on this side of

    • cisya​ - (n) this side; (v) be on this side of
       

  • wey - around [jowey - surroundings]

    • weyya - (v) be around​

  • fol - alongside (of)​, according to [folo - follow]

    • folya - (v) be along

    • fe folya - alongside, accordingly

    • posfol - against (in the opposite direction of)

    • posfolya - (v) be against (in the opposite direction of)

Phrasal Prepositions and Conjunctions
 

  • ruke - (n) back, rear; (v) be behind, be in the back

    • fe ruke - in the back 

    • fe ruke de - behind, in the back of

  • kape - (n) head​; (v) be on top (of) 

    • fe kape - on top 

    • fe kape de - on top of
       

  • fronta - (n) forehead, front; (v) be in front (of) 

    • fe fronta - in front

    • fe fronte de - in front of
       

  • muka - (n) face; (v) be facing, be face to face, be across (from)

    • fe muka - ​across, face to face

    • fe muka de - across from
       

  • opos - (n) opposite; (v) be the opposite of

    • fe opos - on the contrary​

    • fe opos de - opposite, contrary to, against (physically)

  • peda - (n) foot, bottom; (v) be at the bottom (of)

    • fe peda - at the bottom​ 

    • fe peda de - at the bottom of

  • comen - (n) side; (v) be beside

    • fe comen - on the side 

    • fe comen de - on the side (of), next to, beside

  • tayday - (n) substitute, substitution; (v) substitute, replace

    • fe tayday fe - instead (of)

    • fe tayday ki - instead of + sentence

  • kompara - (n) comparison; (v) compare 

    • fe kompara fe - in comparison (to) 

    • fe kompara ki - whereas

  • kosa - (n) cause; (v) cause 

    • fe kosa fe; kos - due to, because of

    • kosya - (v) be because of

    • fe kosa kikoski  - because​, since 

    • kosya ki - be because

  • nere  - nearby, close (to), approximately

    • nere fe  -  near, close to

  • teli - far, far away, remote, distant 

    • teli fe - far from

Other Prepositions

  • el - direct object marker 

    • Functions as a preposition

    • Used for SOV and OSV word orders (typically only used in poetry and song lyrics)

  • de - of (belonging to)

    • deya - (v) belong to​

  • tas - to (indirect object marker), for 

    • tasya - (v) be for​
       

  • tem - about​ [tema - theme/topic]

    • temya - (v) be about​
       

  • pro - in favor of, for, pro- (opp anti)

    • proya - (v) be in favor of, be for

    • propul - favorable
       

  • anti - against

    • antipul - ​opposing

    • antiya - (n) opposition, objection; (v) be against, oppose, object, counter
       

  • fal - (done) by [fale - do, make]

    • falya - (v) be (done) by

  • har - (done) with (having/using), by means of [hare - have]

    • harya - be (done) with, be by means of

  • wal - (done) without (not having/using) [wala - not have]

    • walya - be (done) without​

  • ton - (together) with, along with [tongo - together]

    • tonya - (v) be​ with, keep company
       

  • jul - separate from; without [jula - separate/apart]

    • julya - (v) be without (the company of)​
       

  • por - in exchange for

    • por (moyun) - per​
       

Function Words of Time
 

  • dure - (n) duration; (v) last, have a duration of 

    • fe dure - in the meantime​, meanwhile

    • fe dure fe; dur - during, for + noun phrase

      • dur (moyun) - per​

    • fe dure ki; durki - while + sentence

  • fin- - (prefix) end, come to [fini - finish/end]

    • finfe - (prep) until + noun phrase

    • finki - (conj)​ until + sentence

  • xor- - (prefix) beginning [xoru - begin/start]

    • xorfe - (prep) from, since + noun phrase

    • xorki - (conj) (ever) since + sentence

  • lener - recent(ly) [nere - near]
     

  • xaner - soon
     

  • letel - a long time ago [teli - far]
     

  • xatel - in a long time

  • jaldi - early

  • dyer - late

  • haji - still

    • no haji - no longer, not anymore​​

  • uje - already

    • no uje - not yet

  • fori - immediate(ly)
     

  • pinpan - frequent(ly), often
     

  • nadir - rare(ly), seldom

  • mara - time (occasion) 

    • (fe) ban mara​ - once, once upon a time

    • (fe) dumara - sometimes​

  • nun - present tense particle

    • nunli - present(ly), current(ly)

    • nunya - the present

      • fe nunya - at present, presently, now

    • nundina - today​​

    • (fe) nunli dina - nowadays

  • le - past tense particle

    • leya - (n) the past; (v) be before, come before, precede

      • fe ​leya - in the past, previously, formerly​​

    • leli ​- past, previous(ly), former(ly), ex-

    • lefe - before + noun phrase; ago

    • lefe or fe - by (on or before)

    • leki - before + sentence

    • ledina - yesterday​
       

  • xa - future tense particle​

    • xaya - (n) the future; (v) be after, come after, follow

      • fe xaya - in the future, later (on), afterwards

    • xali -​ (adj) future

    • xafe - after, in + noun phrase

    • xaki - after + sentence

    • xadina - tomorrow​

  • ja - (particleimmediately adjacent [jara - neighbor]

Function Words of Quantity and Degree

  • kriban - almost
     

  • kufi - sufficient, enough (of quantity)​​​

    • kufimo - sufficiently, enough​ (of degree)

 ​

  • plu - multiple (used for expressing plurality)
     

  • multi - many, much

  • xosu - few, little (of quantity) [opp multi]
     

  • daymo - greatly, very
     

  • lilmo - a little (of degree) [opp daymo]
     

  • gomo - too 
     

  • total - entire, whole​​

  • eskaso - scarce, scarcely, barely, hardly
     

  • dacu - approximately, roughly, about, around 

    • dacuya - (n) approximation, estimate; (v) approximate, estimate

Other Function Adverbs

  • no - no, not, don't, doesn't

    • noli - negative​
       

  • si - yes

    • sili - affirmative​

  • hata - even

    • hata no - not even

    • fe hataya - even so, however, neverthe​less, nonetheless, in spite of that

    • fe hataya de  - in spite of, despite

    • fe hataya ki - even though, although, despite the fact that

  • pia - also
     

  • sol - only [solo - alone, the only, the sole]


Comparison 
 

  • (denmo...) kumo...  - as​... as...

  • max - more

    • maxpul - moreover, further, furthermore

    • ji maxya - et cetera
       

  • kom - than (as compared with) [kompara- comparison/compare]
     

  • max... kom... - more (a greater number of, a greater amount)... + noun/verb than...
     

  • maxmo... kom... - more (to a greater degree)... + adj/adv than​​...

  • (denkwanti...) kukwanti... - as much as
     

  • (dennumer...) kunumer... - as many as
     

  • maxim - the most

  • maximum - maximum, at most​, as... as possible

    • maximumya - the maximum

 

  • maxori - (adj/adv) most (the majority of), mostly

    • maxoriya - majority​
       

  • maxus - (prep) plus, with addition of, in addition to, besides

    • maxusli - ​(adj/adv) positive (+1, +2, etc.), additional, additionally, extra, besides

​​

  • min - fewer, less
     

  • min... kom... - fewer, less... + noun/verb than...
     

  • minmo... kom... - less... + adj/adv than...
     

  • minim - the least
     

  • minimum - minimum, at least

    • minimumya - the minimum​

 

  • minori - (adj/adv) the minority of

    • minoriya - minority
       

  • minus - (prep) minus, except for

    • minusli - (adj/adv) negative (-1, -2, etc.), except for that​

    • minuski - unless​​​
       

 
 
 
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