Correlatives

 

Dependent Correlatives

The correlatives words ke, hin, den, ban, moy, nil, alo and sama must always be followed by a noun (whether modified with adjectives or not) or by a pronoun
They should never stand alone since by omitting the (pro)noun the correlative could potentially be mistaken to refer to the noun/verb that follows it. In the absence of a specified noun, the pronouns te or to mark the end of the noun phrase. See Noun Phrases.

Hinto bono nasacu.
This (thing) smells good.

In the sentence above -to marks the end of the noun phrase.

vs.

Hin bono nasacu... memorigi mi cel misu femdoste. 
This good smell... reminds me of my girlfriend.  

kekwanti and kenumer

Likewise, kekwanti (what quantity of) and kenumer (what number of) must also always be followed by a noun or otherwise te or to when a noun is understood and not specified.

Kenumer te bono lala?  
How many (of them) sing well?

vs.

kenumer bono lala - how many good songs

Mi le kari dua kilogramo di risi. Yu le kari kekwanti to?

I bought two kilos of rice. How much did you buy?

Obligatory cel 

The preposition cel is obligatory with loka correlatives when movement is involved.  

cel keloka - where (to)

cel hinloka - here (hither)
cel denloka - there (thither)
etc. 

 

Subordinate Correlatives
 

The correlative particle (ku-) and all its derivatives (kuto, kute, kusu, kuli, kumo, kupul, etc.) are used to introduce subordinate clauses. 

The following are examples of relative pronoun use. It is worth noting that the direct object marker el may be omitted when the relative pronoun refers to the direct object of the relative clause.

Manixu kute le kari hin yamkan pesapul.
or: Te pesapul, manixu kute le kari hin yamkan. 

The man who bought this restaurant is rich. 

Te is femixu kute lubi mi. 

She is the woman who loves me.

 

Te is femixu (el) kute mi lubi.

She is the woman that I love.

Mi jixi kute lubi yu. 
I know who loves you.

 

Mi jixi (el) kute yu lubi.

I know whom you love.

Mi suki (el) kuto yu hare.

I like what you have.

The following are examples with other subordinate clauses:

Mi jixi kuloka te ogar.

I know where he lives.

Mi jixi kuwatu yu le preata.

I know when you arrived.

Mi jixi kuseba yu le no idi.
I know why you didn't go.

Mi no abil na lala kupul yu.
I can't sing like you.

Manixu kusu gami loga Globasa is misu doste. 
or: Te is misu doste, manixu kusu gami loga Globasa.  
The man whose spouse speaks Globasa is my friend. 

ke- or ku-?

Both ke- and ku- correlatives are typically translated into many languages using the question words. For this reason, Globasa learners may at first be unsure when to use ke- and when to use ku-. Fortunately, the difference between ke- and ku- correlatives is straight-forward. Correlatives with ke- are used only when there is an associated question mark at the end of the sentence. Correlatives with ku- are used in all other cases, regardless of how they may be translated in other languages that make a different distinction. It is worth noting that yes/no questions, which start with kam, are never associated with ke- correlatives, and as a result ku- correlatives are always used in these questions. 

daydenmo

 

The word daydenmo is an affixed word composed of day- (augmentative prefix) and the correlative denmo. It is an adverb of degree meaning so or such.  

 

Yu daydenmo bala.
You are so strong.

 

Yu hare daydenmo dayo oko. 
You have such big eyes. 

moyun

 

The word moyun is an affixed word composed of the correlative word moy and un (one). It means each (one) and is used when it is necessary to distinguish it from every/all.

Compare the following sentences:

Mi le kari tiga yuxitul cel moyun nini.
I bought three toys for each child.

Mi le kari tiga yuxitul cel moy nini

I bought three toys for all the children.
 

Truncated Correlatives

The truncated words kwan and mer have a somewhat narrower meaning than their "parent" correlatives.

kwan - some (small amount of)

vs.
bankwanti - a certain, unspecified, amount of

mer - a few, several (a small number of)

vs.

bannumer - a certain, unspecified, number of

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