Correlatives

 

Determiner Correlatives

The correlatives words ke, hin, den, ban, moy, nil, alo and sama must always be followed by a noun (whether modified with adjectives or not) or by a pronoun
They should never stand alone since by omitting the (pro)noun the correlative could potentially be mistaken to refer to the noun/verb that follows it. In the absence of a specified noun, the pronouns te or to mark the end of the noun phrase. See Noun Phrases.
 

Compare the following sentences:

Hinto bono nasacu.
This (thing) smells good.

In the sentence above, -to marks the end of the noun phrase.

Hin bono nasacu... memorigi mi cel misu femdoste. 
This good smell... reminds me of my girlfriend.  

In the sentence above, nasacu marks the end of the noun phrase.

kekwanti, kenumer 

Likewise, kekwanti (what quantity of) and kenumer (what number of) must also always be followed by a noun or otherwise te or to when a noun is understood and not specified.

kenumer bono lala - how many good songs

vs.

Kenumer te bono lala?  
How many (of them) sing well?

Mi le kari dua kilogramo di risi. Yu le kari kekwanti to?

I bought two kilos of rice. How much did you buy?

Obligatory cel 

The preposition cel is obligatory with loka correlatives when movement is involved.  

cel keloka - where (to)

cel hinloka - here (hither)
cel denloka - there (thither)
etc. 

 

Ke vs Ku- Correlatives


In many languages, the so-called questions words (who, where, when, etc.) are used not only to form questions but have multiple other functions. In Globasa, instead of using one set of words for all functions there are two sets (ke and ku- correlatives) with a specific division of labor between them.

The difference between ke and ku- correlatives is as follows. 

Correlatives with ke are used not only in direct and indirect questions but also in statements containing a clause (a sentence within a sentence) that functions in the place of a noun phrase

The correlative prefix ku- and all its derivatives (kute, kuto, kusu, kumo, kupul, kukwanti, kunumerkuloka, kuwatu, kuseba and kumaner) are used only in subordinate clauses. Subordinate clauses are clauses that provide additional information to the core of the sentence. 

The examples below are meant to illustrate the explanation above.

Example sentences with ke correlatives are divided into the following two functions:

Function (1): ke- correlative as direct and indirect question word

Function (2): ke- correlative within clause in place of noun phrase (clause underlined)

 

Example sentences with ku- correlatives have their subordinate clauses in italics.

Note: Ke- questions retain the word order of their counterpart statements.

Ke, Kete, Keto vs. Kute, Kuto 
 

ke, kete and keto - which, who(m) and what

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions 

Kete is yusu alimyen?
Who is your teacher?

Mi wole na jixi kete is yusu alimyen. 

I want to know who your teacher is.


Te wole na yam keto?
What does he want to eat?
 

Mi le wanji el keto te wole na yam. 
I forgot what he wants to eat.

 

Note: The direct object marker el is required to mark the direct object when moved to the start of the clause. 


Te le gibe pesa tas ke doste?
Which friend did she give the money to?
 

Te le no loga tas ke doste te le gibe pesa. 

She didn't say which friend she gave the money to.

 

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase
 

Mi jixi kete lubi yu
I know who loves you.

 

Mi jixi el kete yu lubi.

I know whom you love

Mi suki el keto yu hare.

I like what you have

kute and kuto - who(m)/that and which/that

The relative pronouns kute and kuto appear in subordinate clauses, providing additional information about nouns in a sentence. 
 

Te is femixu kute lubi mi

She is the woman who loves me.

 

Te is femixu el kute mi lubi.

She is the woman that (or: whom) I love.

Kamisa el kuto mi suki blue.
or: To blue, kamisa el kuto mi suki.
The shirt (that) I like is blue. or It's blue, the shirt (that) I like. 

Note: As seen in the last example, when the relative clause is part of the subject, the sentence may be reworded in order to place the core of the sentence first and move the relative clause to the end of the sentence. This helps to make the sentence easier to process.

kesu vs kusu

 

kesu - whose

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions

Hinto is kesu kursi?
Whose chair is this?

Mi wole na jixi kesu kursi hinto is.
I want to know whose chair this is.

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase

Mi jixi kesu kitabu perya mesa.
I know whose book is on the table.


Mi le oko el kesu to yu le cori.
I saw whose you stole.

Note: Since kesu is an adjective it requires a pronoun (to in the example sentence above) at the end of the noun phrase if the noun is understood. 

kusu - whose

 

The relative possessive adjective kusu appears in subordinate clauses. 
 

Manyen kusu gami Globasa is misu doste. 

or: Te is misu doste, manyen kusu gami Globasa.  
The guy whose spouse speaks Globasa is my friend. 
or: He is my friend, the guy whose spouse speaks Globasa.


kepul vs kupul

 

kepul - like what or what kind of (with nouns); how (with verbs)
 

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions (what kind of?; how?) 

Kitabu le kepul?
What was the book like? or How was the book?

Yu suki kepul bwaw?
What kind of dog do you like? 

Te kepul lala?
How does she sing?

Te le swal kepul yu.
She asked how you were.

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase (the kind/way in question; the kind/way which)
 

Mi jixi kepul insan yu is.

I know what kind of person you are.

kupul - like, "kind-wise" as

 

Mi hazuni kupul yu.
I am sad like you

Mi no abil na lala kupul yu.
I can't sing like you.

 

(Sama) kupul mi, pia te hare tiga bete.
Like me, she too has three children.

 

Mi salom yu kupul misu sodar.

I greet you as my brother.

kemo vs kumo

 

kemo - how (degree)

 

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions (to what degree?)
 

Yu kemo lawo?
How old are you?


Yu abil pawbu kemo velosi?
How fast can you run?


Am loga tas mi kemo lungo filme.
Tell me how long the movie is. 

 

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase (the degree in question; the degree to which)

 

Mi jixi kemo pilodo yu
I know how tired you are

kumo - "degree-wise" as

Hin baytu (denmo) dayo
kumo misu to
This house as big as mine

 

kekwanti, kenumer vs kukwanti, kunumer

 

kekwanti, kenumer - how much, how many

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions (what quantity of; what number of)

Yu wole kekwanti risi?
How much rice do you want?

Yu hare kenumer bete?
How many children do you have?

 

Mi jixiwol el kenumer bete yu hare.
I wonder how many children you have.


Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase (the quantity of... which; the number of... which)

Mi le oko el kekwanti risi yu le kari.
I saw how much rice you bought.

 

kukwanti, kunumer - "quantity-wise" as; "number-wise" as

Mi hare (denkwanti) bete kukwanti misu gami.  

I have as many children as my spouse.

keloka vs kuloka

keloka - where 

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions (at what place?)

Yu ogar keloka?
Where do you live?

Am swal tas te keloka te ogar.
Ask her where he lives.

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase (the place in question; the place at which)

Dento is keloka.
That is where

Mi jixi keloka te ogar.

I know where he lives.

 

kuloka - where (at the place at which)

Mi ogar kuloka hay garmeya.
I live where it's warm.

kewatu vs kuwatu

kewatu - when

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions (at what time?)

Te xa preata kewatu?
When will he arrive?

Mi jixiwol kewatu te xa preata.
I wonder when he will arrive.

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase (the time in question; the time at which)

Dento is kewatu te xa preata.
That is when he will arrive.


Mi jixi kewatu te xa preata.

I know when he will arrive.
 

kuwatu - when (at the time at which)

 

Te xa preata kuwatu yam jumbi.
He will arrive when the meal is ready

Am gibe tas te hin suratu kuwatu te xa preata.
Give him this letter when he arrives.


keseba vs kuseba

 

keseba - why

 

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions (for what reason?)

Yu le no idi cel parti keseba?

Why didn't you go to the party?
 

Mi le swal tas te keseba te le no idi cel parti.
I asked her why she didn't go to the party.

 

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase (the reason in question; the reason for which)

Hinto is keseba.
This is why


Mi jixi keseba yu le no idi.
I know why you didn't go.

 

kuseba - for the reason for which

 

Mi le no idi cel parti kuseba yu idi.
I didn't go to the party for the reason for which you went.

kemaner vs kumaner

 

kemaner - how (done how)

Function (1): Direct and indirect questions (done in what manner?)

Yu le xuli mobil kemaner?
How did you fix the car?


Mi jixiwol kemaner yu le xuli mobil.
I wonder how you fixed the car.

 

Function (2): Within clause in place of noun phrase (the manner in question; the manner in which)

Mi jixi kemaner yu le xuli mobil.
I know how you fixed the car.

kumaner - how, like (done in the manner in which)

Mi le xuli mobil kumaner yu le alim tas mi
I fixed the car how/like you taught me.

Kumaner mi le loga...
Like I said...

daydenmo

 

The word daydenmo is an affixed word composed of day- (augmentative prefix) and the correlative denmo. It is an adverb of degree meaning so or such.  

 

Yu daydenmo bala.
You are so strong.

 

Yu hare daydenmo dayo oko. 
You have such big eyes. 

 

daydenkwanti, daydennumer, denmo multi

 

Similarly, the words daydenkwanti and daydennumer may be used to express so much and so many, respectively. Alternatively, the expression denmo multi may be used to express either, as it is synonymous with both daydenkwanti and daydennumer.  

moyun

 

The word moyun is an affixed word composed of the correlative word moy and un (one). It means each (one) and is used when it is necessary to distinguish it from every/all.

Compare the following sentences:

Mi le kari tiga yuxitul cel moyun nini.
I bought three toys for each child.

Mi le kari tiga yuxitul cel moy nini

I bought three toys for all the children.

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