Content Words:
Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives and Adverbs


Nouns

Globasa's nouns do not distinguish between singular and plural forms. 

  • maux - mouse, mice

  • kalamu - pen(s)

Globasas's nouns have neither definite nor indefinite articles.

  • ​janela - (a) window, (the) window(s)

If it is necessary to emphasize singularity and indefiniteness, un (one) may be used.

  • un denta - one tooth, a tooth

If it is necessary to emphasize definiteness, hin (this/these) or den (that/those) may be used.

  • hin kitabu - this book, those books

  • den flura - that flower, those flowers

If it is necessary to emphasize plurality, plu (multiple) may be used.

  • plu pingo - (multiple) apples

Gender

In Globasa, nouns denoting people and animals are typically gender-neutral.

  • ixu - adult (man, woman)

  • nini - kid, child (boy, girl)

  • gami - spouse (husband, wife)

  • mumu - ox (bull, cow)

If it is necessary to emphasize gender, the adjectives fem (female) and man (male) may be used as prefixes.

  • femnini - girl; mannini - boy

  • femixu - woman; manixu - man

  • femgami - wife; mangami - husband​

  • femmumu - cow; manmumu - bull

 

Etymology of fem: English (feminine), French (féminin), German (feminin), Spanish (femenina)

Etymology of man: Mandarin (男 “nán”), French (masculin), Spanish (masculino), English (masculine), German (männlich), Hindi (मर्दाना “mardana”), Persian (
مردانه “mardane”)

 

A handful of nouns denoting people do indicate gender.

  • matre or mama - mother or mom

  • patre or papa - father or dad

Note: The gender-neutral word for parent(s) is atre. The gender-neutral word for mom/dad is mapa

Nouns in Sentence Initial Phrases

Fe is often used in sentence initial phrases with nouns.

  • Fe fato, - In fact, Actually,

  • Fe fini, - Finally,

  • Fe bonxanse, - Luckily, Fortunately,

  • Fe asif, - Regretfully, Unfortunately,

  • Fe onxala, - Hopefully,

  • Fe folo, - ​Therefore, Consequently, So,

  • Fe misal, - For example,

  • Fe xugwan, - Usually,

  • Fe benji, - In essence, Basically,

  • Fe moy kaso, - In any case, At any rate

  • Fe alo kaso, - Otherwise​,

  • Fe nunya, - Now, At present, 

  • Fe leya, - In the past, Previously, Formerly,

  • Fe xaya, - In the future, Later, Afterwards,

Noun/Verbs

In Globasa, nouns are used as verbs. Most of these words denote action (verb) and activity (noun).

  • ergo - work (noun or verb)

  • danse - dance (noun or verb)

  • yam - meal (noun) or eat (verb)

  • lala - song (noun) or sing (verb)

Noun/Verb Comparison 


Noun/verb comparison is expressed as follows using the words max (more), min (less, fewer), kom (than), denmo multi (as many, as much), dennumer (that number of), denkwanti (that quantity), kumo (as).

 

With nouns:
max kitabu kom...
more books than...

 

min kitabu kom...
fewer books than...

denmo multi kitabu kumo...
or: dennumer kitabu kumo... 
as many books as...​

With verbs:

Myaw max somno kom bwaw. 
or: Myaw somno max kom bwaw.

The cat sleeps more than the dog. 


Bwaw min somno kom myaw. 
or: Bwaw somno min kom myaw. 

The dog sleeps less than the cat. 

Bebe denmo multi somno kumo myaw.
or: Bebe somno denmo multi kumo myaw.

or: Bebe somno denkwanti kumo myaw.  

The baby sleeps as much as the cat.

To express the more/the less..., the more/the less..., Globasa uses fol max/min (ki), max/min (ki).

 

Mi fol max doxo, mi max jixi. 
or: Fol max ki mi doxo, max ki mi jixi. 
The more I read, the more I know. 

Apposition
 

In Globasa, a noun may be followed by another noun without the use of a preposition when the second noun specifies the identity of the first. This is known as apposition

Hotel Kaliforni - Hotel California
estato Florida - the state of Florida

Dolo Onxala - Hope Street
misu doste Marko - my friend Mark

leksi kursi - the word chair
 

Adjective/Adverbs

In Globasa, adjectives and verb-modifying adverbs have identical form.

  • bono - good, well

  • velosi - quick(ly), rapid(ly), fast

  • multi - many, much
     

Adjective/adverbs precede the noun/verbs they modify.


Hinto is bono yam
This is a good meal.

 

Bebe bono yam. 
The baby eats well.

Uma velosi pawbu

The horse runs fast.

 

Alternatively, adverbs may appear after the verb, but preceded by the direct and indirect objects, if any: Subject - Verb - (Direct and Indirect Objects) - Adverb.  

Bebe yam bono 
The baby eats well.

Bwaw glu sui velosi

The dog drinks the water quickly.

Adverbs may also be moved to the start of the sentence, so long as there is a definite pause with the comma to separate the phrase from the rest of the sentence. Without the pause, the adjective/adverb could be interpreted as modifying the subject.  

Velosi, bwaw glu sui.

Quickly, the dog drinks the water.

Unyum, te le idi cel banko.
First(ly), she went to the bank. 

Adjective/Adverbs in Sentence-Initial Phrases 
 

The following are adjective/adverbs commonly used in sentence-initial phrases followed by a clear pause before the rest of the sentence. 
 

  • Rili, - Again,

  • Abilli, - Maybe, Perhaps,

  • Maxli, - Moreover, Furthermore,

  • Maxusli - Additionally, Besides,

  • Minusli - Except for that,

  • Pia, - Also,

  • Abruto, - Suddenly​,

  • Total, - Absolutely, Totally,

  • Yakin, - Certainly, 

  • Ideal, - Ideally,

  • Mimbay, - Obviously, Of course,

  • Mingo, - Clearly, Evidently,

  • Sipul, - Indeed, 

  • Fori, - Immediately,

  • Pinpan, - Often, Oftentimes,

  • Sati, - Truly,

  • Umumi, - In general, Generally,

  • Lener, - Recently,

  • Letel, - A long time ago, 

  • Xaner, - Soon, 

  • Xatel, - In a long time, 

Adjective/Adverb Comparison 

Adjective/adverb comparison is expressed as follows using the words maxmo (more, -er), minmo (less), kom (than), denmo (as) and kumo (as):

  • maxmo kimapul kom... - more expensive than...

  • minmo kimapul kom... - less expensive than...

  • denmo kimapul kumo... - as expensive as...​

To express the most (-est) and the least, Glosaba uses maxim... te/to and minim... te/to. The word of means out of or off (of). Note that the pronouns te/to must immediately follow the adjective since noun phrases must always end in a noun or pronoun. See Noun Phrases.   

  • maxim juni te (of misu bete) - the youngest (of my children)

  • minim kimapul to (of yusu mobil) - the least expensive/costly (of your cars)

To express the more/the less..., the more/the less..., Globasa uses fol maxmo/minmo, maxmo/minmo.

  • fol maxmo newe, maxmo bono - the newer, the better​

Adjectives as Verbs

Just as nouns are used as verbs, adjectives are also used as verbs, known as stative verbs. This feature is virtually universal across creole languages.

 

  • dayo - big (adjective); be big (verb)

dayo kamera - big room
 

Kamera dayo. 
The room is big. 

Common Affixes

Noun Suffix -ya

The suffix -ya has a variety of useful functions and is equivalent to several English suffixes: -ity, -ness,

-dom, -hood, -ship

 

1. Abstract nouns are derived from adjective/adverbs by adding -ya. ​

  • real - real (adj)

  • realya - reality (noun)
     

  • bimar - sick, ill (adj)

  • bimarya - illness, disease (noun)
     

  • huru - free (adj)

  • huruya - freedom, liberty (noun)

  • mor - dead (adj)

  • morya - death (noun)

  • solo - alone (adj)

  • soloya - solitude (noun

2. When noun/verbs denote anything other than action and activity, the suffix -ya is used to denote the activity of the action.

For example, the body parts (noun) associated with the five senses denote the related action (verb), while -ya is used to derive the respective activity and sense.  

  • oko - eye (noun), see/look (verb)

  • okoya - (sense of) sight 

  • ore - ear (noun), hear (verb)

  • oreya - (sense of) hearing 

  • nasa - nose (noun), smell (verb)

  • nasaya - (sense of) smell

  • xeto - tongue (noun), taste (verb)

  • xetoya - (sense of) taste

  • pifu - skin (noun), touch (verb)

  • pifuya - (sense of) touch

3. Similarly, in other noun/verbs, the concrete noun also functions as a related verb, while the activity is expressed using -ya.

  • image - image/picture (noun), imagine/picture (verb)

  • imageya - imagination
     

  • magneto - magnet (noun), attract (verb)

  • magnetoya - attraction

4. The suffix -ya means -hood or -ship when attached to nouns denoting relationships.

​ 

  • matre - mother 

  • matreya - motherhood
     

  • patre - father 

  • patreya - fatherhood
     

  • doste - friend 

  • dosteya - friendship

 

5. Abstract nouns are also derived from other nouns using the suffix -ya.
 

  • poema - poem 

  • poemaya - poetry
     

  • turi - travel/trip 

  • turiya - tourism
     

  • arkiteto - architect

  • arkitetoya - architecture
     

  • injener - engineer

  • injenerya - engineering

 

6. Prepositions are turned into noun/verbs using the suffix -ya. See Prepositional Verbs 

7. The suffix -ya is also used to turn other function words into nouns. See Function Words.

Etymology of -ya: Hindi (सत्य "satya" - truth), Spanish (alegría - joy)

Prefix du-

Globasa uses the prefix du- to express the gerund.

  • dudanse - (the act of) dancing

  • dulala - (the act of) singing

The prefix du- is also used for the continuous/habitual verb aspect. See Verb Forms.  

The prefix du- is truncated from dure (duration).
Etymology of dure: English, French, German and Spanish 

​​Noun/Verb Suffix -gi
 

The suffix -gi turns adjectives into transitive verbs.
 

  • bala - strong

  • balagi - strengthen
     

  • pule - full

  • pulegi - fill

  • mor - dead

  • morgi - kill 

The suffix -gi is also used to turn transitive or intransitive verb into causative verbs.

  • esto - stop (come to a stop)

  • estogi - stop (cause to stop)
     

  • yam - eat

  • yamgi - feed (cause to eat/give food)

The suffix -gi is truncated from gibe (give).
Etymology of gibe: English (give), German (geben, gibt) and Mandarin (给 “gěi”)  

Noun/Verb Suffix -cu

The suffix -cu (get/become) turns adjectives into intransitive verbs.
 

  • roso - red

  • rosocu - blush/redden (get red)
     

  • mor - dead

  • morcu - die (become dead)

The suffix -cu may also be applied to noun/verbs, turning them into intransitive verbs.  

  • gami - spouse (noun), marry (verb)

  • gamicu - get married (verb), wedding (noun)

The suffix -cu is truncated from cudu (take, obtain, acquire, gain)

Etymology of cudu: Mandarin (取得 "qǔdé"), Korean (취득 “chwideug”)

Adjective/Adverb Suffix -li

In Globasa, adjective/adverb words are derived from nouns by means of various suffixes. See full list of suffixes under Word Formation. One of the most common is the suffix -li (of, relating to).
 

  • musika - music 

  • musikali - musical, musically
     

  • dahabu - gold 

  • dahabuli - golden
     

  • denta - tooth 

  • dentali - dental
     

  • dongo - east 

  • dongoli - eastern
     

  • Franse - France

  • Franseli - French

The suffix -li is also used for deriving adjective/adverbs out of function words. See Function Words

Etymology of -li: French (-el, -elle), Spanish (-al), English (-al, -ly), German (-lich), Russian (-ельный “-elni”, -альный “-alni”), Turkish (-li)

Adjective/Adverb Suffix -pul

The suffix -pul means full of or having

  • jawgu - care, take care

  • jawgupul - careful
     

  • hatari - danger

  • hataripul - dangeous

The suffix -pul is truncated from pule (full).
Etymology of pule: English (full), Hindi (पूर्ण  “purn”), Russian (
полный “poln-”)

 

Active Adjectives: Suffix -ne

The suffix -ne means in the active process of and is used to derive what are known in Globasa as active adjectives

 

Active adjectives are in most cases equivalent to present participles in English (adjectives ending in -ing). However, unlike in English, active adjectives are not used to generate the progressive verb forms (I am sleeping, She is dancing, etc.). Instead, they only function as adjectives.

 

  • somno - sleep

  • somnone meliyen sleeping beauty
     

  • sampo - walk

  • sampone moryen - walking dead 

  • danse - dance

  • dansene umadancing horse

  • interes - interest

  • interesne kitabuinteresting book 

  • amusa - amuse, fun

  • amusane filmeamusing/fun film

Etymology of -ne: English (-ing), French (-ant), Spanish (-ando), German (-en, -ende), Russian (-ный “-ny”), Turkish (-en, -an)

Sentence-initial Active Adjectives 

Active adjectives that appear sentence initially may alternatively be expressed as prepositional phrases with noun/verbs.

Doxone, nini le xorsomno.

Reading, the kid fell asleep.

or

Fe doxo, nini le xorsomno.
or: 
Dur doxo, nini le xorsomno. 
(While) reading, the kid fell asleep.

 

This construction is useful particularly when the phrase includes a direct object since active adjectives cannot function as verbs in Globasa, the way the present participle does in English. 

 

Dur doxo sesu preferido kitabu, nini le xorsomno.

During the reading of his favorite book, the kid fell asleep.

 

In the sentence above, it is worth noting that the preposition of is not translated. Since Globasa's nouns and verbs have the same form, noun phrases equivalent to verb phrases are also identical. See Noun Phrases with Direct Objects.

Naturally, these phrases may also be expressed as full clauses.

Dur te le doxo (sesu preferido kitabu), nini xorsomno.

While he read (his favorite book), the kid fell asleep. 

Passive Adjectives
 

Active adjectives may be rendered passive by adding the passive prefix be- to derive what are known in Globasa as passive active adjectives (or passive adjectives for short). There is no exact equivalent in English for passive adjectives, but are best understood as the exact passive form of the present participle in English.   

  • belalane melodi - melody that is sung or being sung

  • belubine doste - beloved friend or friend that is loved

Inactive Adjectives: Suffix -do

The suffix -do means in an inactive state of. Words with this suffix are known in Globasa as inactive adjectives and are typically translated as the past participle in English. However, unlike in English, inactive adjectives are not used to generate perfect or passive verb forms (I have worked, It was/got stolen, etc.). Instead, they function only as adjectives. 

 

It is worth noting that, technically speaking, the suffix -do is added to the noun aspect of noun/verb words. For this reason -do may be added to either transitive or intransitive noun/verbs.

 

With transitive noun/verbs: 
 

  • gujedo janela - broken window (in a state of breakage)

  • klosido dwer - closed door (in a state of closure) 

  • hajado ergo - necessary work (in a state of necessity)

  • estogido mobil - stopped car (in a state of caused stoppage: which has been stopped)

With intransitive noun/verbs:

  • Uncudo Nasyon - United Nations (in a state of union)

  • estodo mobil - stopped car (in a state of its own stoppage: which has stopped)

Etymology of -do: English (-ed), Spanish (-ado, -ido)

Adverb Suffix -mo

Adjective/adverbs that modify other adjective/adverbs, known as adj/adv-modifying adverbs, add the suffix -mo. Compare the following pairs of phrases.

 

perfeto syahe tofa - perfect (black hair) or black hair that is perfect

perfetomo syahe tofa - (perfectly black) hair or hair that is perfectly black


sotikal doxone nini - quiet child reading 
sotikalmo doxone nini - child silently reading

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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