Content Words:
Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives and Adverbs


Nouns

Globasa's nouns do not distinguish between singular and plural forms. 

  • maux - mouse, mice

  • kalamu - pen(s)

Globasas's nouns have neither definite nor indefinite articles.

  • ​janela - (a) window, (the) window(s)

If it is necessary to emphasize singularity and indefiniteness, un (one) may be used.

  • un denta - one tooth, a tooth

If it is necessary to emphasize definiteness, hin (this/these) or den (that/those) may be used.

  • hin kitabu - this book, those books

  • den flura - that flower, those flowers

If it is necessary to emphasize plurality, plu (multiple) may be used.

  • plu pingo - (multiple) apples

Gender

In Globasa, nouns denoting people and animals are typically gender-neutral.

  • ixu - adult (man, woman)

  • nini - kid/child (boy, girl)

  • gami - spouse (husband, wife)

  • mumu - ox (bull, cow)

If it is necessary to emphasize gender, the adjectives fem (female) and man (male) may be used as prefixes.

  • femnini - girl; mannini - boy

  • femixu - woman; manixu - man

  • femgami - wife; mangami - husband​

  • femmumu - cow; manmumu - bull

 

Etymology of fem: English, French, German, Spanish

Etymology of man: Mandarin (男 “nán”), French, Spanish, English (masculine), German (männlich), Hindi (मर्दाना “mardana”), Persian (
مردانه “mardane”)

 

A handful of nouns denoting people do indicate gender.

  • matre or mama - mother or mom

  • patre or papa - father or dad

Note: The gender-neutral word for parent(s) is atre. The gender-neutral word for mom/dad is mapa

Noun/Verb Words

In Globasa, nouns are used as verbs. Most of these words denote action (verb) and activity (noun).

  • ergo - work (noun or verb)

  • danse - dance (noun or verb)

  • yam - meal (noun) or eat (verb)

  • lala - song (noun) or sing (verb)

Apposition
 

In Globasa, proper nouns come immediately after the noun they are modifying, without the use of a preposition.

Hotel Kaliforni - Hotel California
estato Florida - the state of Florida

Dolo Onxala - Hope Street
misu doste Marko - my friend Mark

Adjective/Adverb Words

In Globasa, adjectives and verb-modifying adverbs have identical form.

  • bono - good, well

  • velosi - quick(ly), rapid(ly), fast

  • multi - many, much
     

Adjective/adverb words precede the noun/verb words they modify.

 

  • bono yam - good meal; eats well


Hinto is bono yam. 
This is a good meal.

 

Bebe bono yam. 
The baby eats well.

Uma velosi pawbu. 

The horse runs fast.

 

Alternatively, adverbs may immediately follow the verb, or the direct and indirect objects, if any. 

Bebe yam bono.  
The baby eats well.

Bwaw glu sui velosi. 

The dog drinks the water quickly.

Adjective/Adverb Comparison 

Adjective/adverb comparison is expressed with the words max (more, -er), min (less), kom (than), denli (as, so) and kuli (as, like):

  • max kimapul kom... - more expensive than...

  • min kimapul kom... - less expensive than...

  • denli kimapul kuli... - as expensive as...​

To express the most (-est) and the least, Glosaba uses maxim and minim. The word of means out of or off (of).

  • maxim juni (of misu bete) - the youngest (of my children)

  • minim kimapul (of yusu mobil) - the least expensive/costly (of your cars)

To express the more/the less..., the more/the less..., Globasa uses fol max/min..., denli max/min...

  • fol max newe, denli max bono - the newer, the better​

Adjective/Adverb Words as Verbs

Just as nouns are used as verbs, adj/adv words are also used as stative verbs. This feature is virtually universal in creole languages.

 

  • dayo - big (adjective); is big (verb)

dayo kamera - big room
 

Kamera dayo. 
The room is big. 

Common Affixes

Noun Suffix -ya

The suffix -ya has a variety of useful functions and is equivalent to several English suffixes: -ity, -ness,

-dom, -hood, -ship. 

 

1. Abstract nouns are derived from adjective/adverb words by adding -ya. ​

  • real - real (adj)

  • realya - reality (noun)
     

  • bimar - sick, ill (adj)

  • bimarya - illness, disease (noun)
     

  • huru - free (adj)

  • huruya - freedom, liberty (noun)

  • mor - dead (adj)

  • morya - death (noun)

  • solo - alone (adj)

  • soloya - solitude (noun) 

2. When noun/verb words denote anything other than action and activity, the suffix -ya is used to denote the activity of the action.

For example, the body parts (noun) associated with the five senses denote the related action (verb), while -ya is used to derive the respective activity and sense.  

  • oko - eye (noun), see/look (verb)

  • okoya - (sense of) sight 

  • ore - ear (noun), hear (verb)

  • oreya - (sense of) hearing 

  • nasa - nose (noun), smell (verb)

  • nasaya - (sense of) smell

  • xeto - tongue (noun), taste (verb)

  • xetoya - (sense of) taste

  • pifu - skin (noun), touch (verb)

  • pifuya - (sense of) touch

3. Similarly, in other noun/verb words, a concrete noun also functions as a related verb, while the activity is expressed using -ya.

  • image - image/picture (noun); imagine/picture (verb)

  • imageya - imagination
     

  • magneto - magnet (noun); attract (verb)

  • magnetoya - attraction

4. The suffix -ya means -hood or -ship when attached to nouns denoting relationships.

​ 

  • matre (mother) - matreya (motherhood)

  • patre (father) - patreya (fatherhood)

  • doste (friend) - dosteya (friendship)

 

5. Abstract nouns are also derived from other nouns using the suffix -ya.
 

  • poema (poem) - poemaya (poetry)

  • turi (travel/trip) - turiya (tourism)

  • arkiteto (architect) - arkitetoya (architecture)

  • injener (engineer) - injenerya (engineering)

 

6. The suffix -ya is also useful for deriving nouns out of function words. See Function Words

Etymology of -ya: Arabic, Hindi (सत्य "satya" - truth), Spanish (alegría - joy), Russian, Sinhalese

Prefix du-

Globasa uses the prefix du- to express the gerund.

  • dudanse - (the act of) dancing

  • dulala - (the act of) singing

The prefix du- is also used for the continuous/habitual verb aspect. See Verb Forms.  

The prefix du- is truncated from dura (duration).
Etymology of dura: English, French, German and Spanish 

​​Noun/Verb Suffix -gi
 

The suffix -gi turns adjectives into transitive verbs.
 

  • bala - strong

  • balagi - strengthen
     

  • pule - full

  • pulegi - fill

  • mor - dead

  • morgi - kill 

The suffix -gi is also used to turn transitive or intransitive verb into causative verbs.

  • esto - stop (come to a stop)

  • estogi - stop (cause to stop)
     

  • yam - eat

  • yamgi - feed (cause to eat/give food)

The suffix -gi is truncated from gibe (give).
Etymology of gibe: English, German (geben, gibt) and Mandarin (给 “gěi”)  

Noun/Verb Suffix -cu

The suffix -cu (get/become) turns adjectives into intransitive verbs.
 

  • roso - red

  • rosocu - blush/redden (get red)
     

  • mor - dead

  • morcu - die (become dead)

The suffix -cu may also be applied to noun/verb words, turning them into intransitive verbs.  

  • gami - spouse (noun), marry (verb)

  • gamicu - get married (verb), wedding (noun)

The suffix -cu is truncated from cudu (take, obtain, acquire, gain)

Etymology of cudu: Mandarin (取得 "qǔdé"), Korean (취득 “chwideug”)

Adjective/Adverb Suffix -li

In Globasa, adjective/adverb words are derived from nouns by means of various suffixes. See full list of suffixes under Word Formation. One of the most common is the suffix -li (of, relating to).
 

  • musika (music) - musikali (musical, musically)​

  • dahabu (gold) - dahabuli (golden)

  • denta (tooth) - dentali (dental) 

  • dongo (east) - dongoli (eastern) 

  • franse (France) - franseli (French)

The suffix -li is also used for deriving adjective/adverb words out of function words. See Function Words

Etymology of -li: French (-el, -elle), Spanish (-al), English (-al, -ly), German (-lich), Russian (-ельный “-elni”, -альный “-alni”), Turkish (-li)

Modified Adj/Adv Words

Adj/adv words that modify other adj/adv words (adj/adv-modifying adverbs) must add the suffix -li.

 

perfetoli syahe tofa - (perfectly black) hair 

Compare with:

 

perfeto, syahe tofa - perfect, (black hair)

 

Adjective/Adverb Suffix -pul

The suffix -pul ("full of") is another common suffix for deriving adjectives/adverbs from nouns. 

  • jawgu - (care, take care) - jawgupul (careful)

  • hatari (danger) - hataripul (dangeous)

The suffix -pul is truncated from pule (full).
Etymology of pule: English (full), Hindi (पूर्ण “purn”), Russian (
полный “poln-”)


Adjective/Adverb Suffix -ne

The suffix -ne is used to derive adjectives from verbs, creating what is known in Globasa as active adjectives.

 

The active adjective is equivalent to the present participle in English (adjectives ending in -ing). However, unlike in English, the active adjective is not used to generate the progressive verb form. Instead, it merely functions as an adjective (or adverb).

 

  • somno - sleep

  • somnone meliyen - (the) sleeping beauty
     

  • sampo - walk

  • sampone moryen - (the) walking dead 

  • danse - dance

  • dansene uma - (the) dancing horse

  • interes - interest

  • interesne kitabu - (the) interesting book 

  • amusa - amuse, fun

  • amusane filme - (the) amusing/fun film

Etymology of -ne: English (-ing), French (-ant), Spanish (-ando), German (-en, -ende), Russian (-ный “-ny”), Turkish (-en, -an)

Adjective/Adverb Suffix -do

 

The suffix -do is attached to transitive verbs to generate the passive adjective. The passive adjective often, although not necessarily, expresses pastness and as such it is equivalent to the past participle in English. However, unlike in English, the passive adjective is not used to generate the perfect verb tenses. Instead, it merely functions as an adjective (or adverb).
 

  • gujedo janela - broken window 

  • klosido dwer - closed door 

  • hajado ergo - needed/necessary work 

Etymology of -do: English (-ed), Spanish (-ado, -ido)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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