What changes have been introduced in Globasa since its publication in July, 2019?

Phase 1 

 

Grammar
 

Adj/adv words modifying other adj/adv words: adj/adv —> adj/adv + -li

 

Rationale

Using adj/adv words to modifying other adj/adv words creates ambiguity:


dayo bale uma - big strong horse or greatly (very) strong horse

Example 
perfeto, syahe tofa - perfect, black hair

perfetoli syahe tofa - perfectly black hair
 

very: dayo —> dayli —> mul —> dayoli or dayli

Rationale

This change conforms with the adverbial use of -li described above.

 

as… as…: egal… kupul… —> denli… kuli…

Rationale
This change conforms with the adverbial use of -li described above.

 

there is/are: is —> hay

 

Rationale

The use of is for there is/are seems confusing, and gives is too many meanings. The introduction of the root word hay adds clarity. 

 

passive voice: be- —> (optionally) be or be-

 

Rationale

Separating the particle be- makes it easier to identify it. The prefix be- is still optional with verbs, but obligatory with noun and adjective compounds: belubiyen (loved one).

 

However, be- as a prefix might ultimately be easier to process, so this experimental change may be switched back to the original be- in all cases. 

 

fe: optional fe in many instances —> optional fe limited to correlatives, sentence initial expressions with -ya nouns, and certain common time phrases (ledyen, etc.)

 

Rationale

Having too many different instances where fe is optional may become confusing and difficult to determine when fe must be applied and when it’s optional.
 

infinitive: optional na —> obligatory na

 

Rationale

Optional na creates an unacceptable ambiguity.

 

Optional:
Mi suki oko - I like the eye. vs I like to see.

Obligatory:
Mi suki oko - I like the eye.
Mi suki na oko - I like to see.

 

any/ever: he —> he-
 

Rationale
The separate word he creates some three-word correlatives which seem too disjointed:

 

he ban loka - anywhere vs. the updated heban loka - anywhere

other: alter —> alo

 

Rationale
Better consistency in the form of correlatives (see next point).

 

Addition of sama- as correlative

 

Rationale

Sama as the opposite of alo, for symmetry in the correlatives. 

-ible, -able: be-X-bil —> be-X-bil or short form -bel

 

Rationale

The affix structure be-X-bil is a bit long and cumbersome for being so common. 

 

Example

invisible: nobeokobil (invisible) —> nookobel
 

Root Words

Phonology

Globasa updated its phonology in September, 2019 in order to introduce more recognizability to international words without making the phonology much more complicated.

 

The consonant -h is no longer allowed in word final position. The consonants allowed in word-final position are now the following nine: -f, -l, -m, -n, -r, -s, -w-, -x, -y.


Within a word, any and all single consonants are now allowed. The following root words have been adjusted as a result:

morning: sobah —> soba

fox: rubah —> ruba —> rubahe

advice: nasih —> nasiha

rest: istirah —> istraha —> rahatu

black: syah —> syahe

cough: koh(hoh) —> kof(kof)

magnet: mahneto —> magneto

technology: tehno —> tekno

sex: sexo —> sekso

word: lexi —> leksiko —> leksi

galaxy: galaxi —> galaksi

select, choose: seleci —> seleksi —> seleti

instructions: istruci —> istruksi —> istruksyon

action: aci —> aksyon
function, work: funci —> funsyon

Double Vowels Discarded: Double vowels were also discarded in the phonology.
 

achoo: acuu —> acu
wolf: auu —> ?

Avoiding artificial compromises: The following words were adjusted in order to avoid a compromise between languages that is too artificial.

tree: dreho —> drevo

Arabic final vowel -u


dear: azize —> azizu
lesson: darse —> darsu
house: bayte —> baytu
obedience: etate —> etatu
romantic love: exke —> exku

drown: garka —> garaku

hour: sate —> satu

fall: sokute —> sokutu

thing: xeye —> xeyu

Avoiding conflict: The following words were adjusted to avoid a conflict with another root word or phrase
 

gram: gram —> gramo

enough, sufficient: kafi —> kufi

room: kamer —> kamar —> kamera

rabbit/hare: hargox —> kargux

long: longo —> lungo

machine: maxin —> maxina

replacement, substitution: daytay —> tayday

 

Increasing recognizability

 

theater: teatra —> teatro

young: june —> juni

virus: viru —> virus
crisis: krisi —> krisis

basket: baske —> baskete

ticket: tike —> tikete

enjoyment, pleasure: furha —> furaha

date: tarhe —> tarihe

fantasy: fantas —> fantasi

window: janel —> janela

 

Clipped Roots

reputation: reputasyon —> reputa

recommend: rekomenda —> rekomen

Greater ease in pronounciation

culture: kultur —> kultura (kulturali)

nature: natur —> natura (naturali)

 

long/short —> short

car: (awto)mobil —> mobil
bus: (awto)bus —> bus

Correction
 

hard, rigid, stiff: xahte —> sakate

Different Root Word


color: rangi —> kolor (-lor)

situation —> halular (halu - circumstance)

gray: gris —> hwese

coast: sahil —> kosta

search, look for: xunjaw —> xerca

accept: aceta —> swikara

interpret: interpreta —> tafasir

 

Greater Mandarin representation in the UDHR

The following words were not in the original dictionary but were added in the process of translating the UDHR. The root words were changed according to the new Methodology for Word Selection for greater international balance by giving Mandarin a greater representation.
 

commerce: komerci —> xangyo

widow: vidwe —> gwafu
vote: voto —> tupyo

compensation/compensate: kompensa —> bocan

Dropped root word in favor of affixed word
 

street, road: kuca —> dolo
highway, freeway: dolo —> daydolo

 

Dropped affixed word in favor of root word
 

school: xwexidom, alimdom —> eskol

 

Narrowing down meaning with addition of root word

know: jixi —> jixi, kone

Addition of vowels or elimination of codas
 

abyas --> abyasa (rehearse, practice)

amir --> amiru (command)

amus --> amusa (amuse)

anxos --> ansyoso (anxious)

bahar --> bahari (sea)

banan --> banana (banana)

bander --> bandera (flag)

botel --> botela (bottle)

brun --> bruno (brown)

byer --> bira (beer)

darje --> daraje (degree)

deklar --> deklara (declare, declaration)

din --> dini (religion)

disen --> diseno (design)

dyen --> dina (day)

ekonom --> ekonomi (economy)

enfas --> enfasi (emphasis)

eskas --> eskaso (scarce, scarcely, barely)

esker --> esketi (skirt)

especif --> especifi (especific)

estar --> estare (star)

estil --> estilo (style)

estrober --> estroberi (strawberry)

exklus --> exklusi (exclude)

figur --> figura (form, figure)

flex --> fleksi (bend)

garbi --> garabi (west)

haruf --> harufi (letter of alphabet)

hatar --> hatari (danger)

hazun --> hazuni (sad)

hikay --> hikaye (story)

hukim --> hukimu (judge, judgment)

inklus --> inklusi (include)

ix --> ixu (adult)

jabre --> jabare (jaw)

jayza --> jayeza (prize, reward)

jyani --> jeni (suggest)

kalam --> kalamu (pen)

kamar --> kamera (room)

kamis --> kamisa (shirt)

katin --> katina (difficult)

kijaw --> kijawi (green)

klas --> klase (class, category)

komentar --> komenta (comment)

kompar --> kompara (compare)

korban --> korbani (victim)

mader --> maderi (matter)

mahar --> mahara (skill)

makal --> makale (article in publication)

malki --> malaki (property)

masal --> masele (issue, matter, affair)

maxor --> maxori (most)

medis --> medici (medicate, medicine)

mekan --> mekani (mechanism)

minor --> minori (the minority of)

mixtur --> mixtura (mix)

mosim --> mosimu (season)

mwes --> mesi (month)

nervos --> nervoso (nervous)

nigal --> nigalu (swallow)

ofis --> ofisi (office)

ordinar --> ordinari (ordinary)

palas --> palasi (palace)

plas --> plasi (put, place)

poem --> poema (poem)

polis --> polisi (police)

precis --> preciso (precise, exact)

prefer --> preferi

produs --> produsi (produce)

proces --> proceso (process)

purpur --> purpuro (purple)

razon --> rasona (reason)

regul --> regula (rule)

reklam --> reklama (advertisement)

sebul --> cebula (onion)

sigar --> sigaro (cigar)

simul --> simula (simulate)

sukar --> sukeri (sugar)

swikar --> swikara (accept)

tahmin --> tahmini (evaluate)

talju --> taluji (snow)

umum --> umumi (general)

utar --> utara (north)

vyayam --> vyayama (exercise)

xekay --> xekaye (complain)
 

Numbers

doy --> dua

tin --> tiga

car --> care

lim --> lima

sis --> sisa

sef --> sabe

walo --> oco
naw --> nue

(Ordinal numbers with the suffix -yum.)

Greater Japanese Influence in East-Asian Words (simpler pronunciation).
 

celyan --> calyo (vehicle) 

consan --> cosan (praise) 

jifan --> cibo (fat) 

jontay --> jotay (state, condition) 

yanxin --> yoxin (conscience) 

xanho --> sogo (reciprocal, each other) 

xangyo --> xogyo (commerce) 

Phase 2
Additions:

  • The preposition tas (to, for) as the indirect object marker; the preposition cel now used only to show movement

  • Adjective/adverb dacu (approximately, around, about); semantics of preposition wey narrowed down

  • Preposition cis (on this side of) as the opposite of tras

  • Prefix nen- (un-)

  • Preposition nenhar (without) replaced by wal

  • Verb Mood dupul
     

ji... ji... --> iji.... ji
or... or... 
--> oro... or
nor... nor... 
--> noro... nor
kam... kam... 
--> kama... kam
 

The preposition fe optional only in expressions of time

Semantic Adjustments:

  • Preposition por: in exchange for" instead as "per"

  • Semantic adjustment for laye

  • -je and -ya

  • pel

Sentence initial expressions:

  • Elimination of fe _____-ya expressions in favor of simple adjective/adverbs (with obligatory pause after comma)

  • Elimination of to in certain expressions: unyum to --> unyum; xaja to --> xaja (with obligatory pause after comma)


Infinitive phrases used after prepositions
 

Adverbs of degree and manner: -li --> -mo

go --> go-

Free word order for hay sentences
 

The use of su as a genitive (possessive) particle for all nouns
 

The copula is only for linking subject with noun phrase, infinitive phrase or clause
 

Prepositional Verbs: Prepositions turned into verbs using -ya instead of using a copula


The word feya as an optional copula used for linking subject to prepositional phrase
 

Obligatory direct object marker el with relative pronouns
 

denmo... kumo... --> (denmo...) kumo...

denkwanti... kumo... --> (denkwanti...) kukwanti...

dennumer... kumo... --> (dennumer...) kunumer...
 

Omission of le and xa within clause rather than within sentence
 

abilli (possible/maybe) --> bilpul --> bilbil


maxbil (probable, probably) --> meypul --> meymey 
 

maximbil (most likely) --> daymeypul --> daymeymey 


rili (again) --> riri

Correlatives:

  • one-word correlatives - keloka, kewatu, etc.
     

  • ke vs ku- correlatives: ku- correlatives used in subordinate clauses; ke correlatives in all other cases
     

  • Elimination of -li correlatives
     

  • Elimination of short forms kwan (some quantity of) and mer (several, a few) in favor of bankwanti and bannumer.
     

  • he- --> he

Phase 3

Conflict with double letters:

  • lidi --> lide

  • iman --> imanu

Verb Transitivity: Adjusted from intransitive to transitive
harka, esto, atex, evolu (develop) rota, gulun 

meymey --> daybilbil

daymeymey --> maxim daybilbil

yur- --> ami- 

termo- --> termoli

garme
--> termopul

bardi --> bardipul
 

-kras --> -krasi
krasi
--> krasia

-graf
--> -grafi
grafi
--> grafia
 

fobi --> hawfu, -fobi/fobia

ologi --> logia

 

Adjective Compounds with -mo
 

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